Information on EC 1.1.1.234 - flavanone 4-reductase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.1.1.234
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
flavanone 4-reductase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+ = (2S)-flavanone + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
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-
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
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-
-
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
apigeninidin 5-O-glucoside biosynthesis
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luteolinidin 5-O-glucoside biosynthesis
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Flavonoid biosynthesis
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
(2S)-flavan-4-ol:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase
Involved in the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins from flavanones such as naringenin or eriodictyol.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
115232-53-6
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
Columnea hybrida
strain 'Heklua'
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Columnea hybrida Heklua
strain 'Heklua'
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains M9 and Weirouge
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains Pyrodwarf, Conference and Abbe Fetel
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene SmDFR
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
syn. Rechsteineria cardinalis, strain ' Feuerschein'
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains: Peterson Ac 1355 A-D (sm), al-line, and Pirat
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
the enzyme belongs to the plant DFR superfamily, phylogenetic analysis
malfunction
Sorghums with a tan injury response have non-functional FNR alleles (p). The FNR gene of cultivar M36001 has an insertion in the coding region. Sorghums with a tan injury response have lower levels of flavan-4-ols (precursors of apigeninidin and luteolinidin-apiforol and luteoforol, respectively) than do sorghums with a purple or red injury response and are unable to synthesize 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
homology modeling on the basis of the crystal structure of grape dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, PDB ID 3C1T
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2S)-eriodictyol + NADPH
luteoforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
(2S)-eriodictyol + NADPH + H+
luteoforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
(2S)-naringenin + NADPH + H+
apiforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
5,7,3',4',5'-pentahydroxyflavanone + NADPH
5,7,3',4',5'-pentahydroxyflavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
eriodictyol + NADP+
luteoforol + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
naringenin + NADPH + H+
apiforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2S)-eriodictyol + NADPH
luteoforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
C5YGL7
-
-
-
?
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
(2S)-naringenin + NADPH + H+
apiforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
eriodictyol + NADP+
luteoforol + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
C5YGL7
-
-
-
?
naringenin + NADPH + H+
apiforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
C5YGL7
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-
-
?
additional information
?
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
NADPH
additional information
-
no cofactors are FAD, FMN or tetrahydropterin, with or without NADPH
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INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1,10-phenanthroline
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slight inhibition at 1 mM, 50-70% inhibition at 5 mM
glycerol
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10% v/v, complete irreversible inactivation
naringenin
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above 0.1 mM
p-chloromercuribenzoate
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0.5 mM
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
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complete inhibition at 1 mM
Sucrose
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20% w/v, complete irreversible inactivation
additional information
-
no inhibition by KCN, EDTA, diethyl dithiocarbamate, phenanthroline or N-ethylmaleimide, 2 mM each
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KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.021 - 0.023
(2S)-naringenin
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SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.0009
Columnea hybrida
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-
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.5
Columnea hybrida
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5.8
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pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
4.7 - 6.9
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about half-maximal activity at pH 4.7 and 6.9
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
a red callus line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
?
x * 40000, recombinant His-tagged enzyme, SDS-PAGE, x * 37800, about, sequence calculation
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
freezing fresh flowers in liquid nitrogen and storing them at -80°C enhances extractable activity compared to fresh flowers
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Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
recombinant His-tagged enzyme from Escherichia coli strain BL21 Star(DE3)pLysS by nickel affinity chromatography
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expressed in yeast and petunia
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expressed in yeast strain InvSc1
gene P or Sb06g029550, genetic structure, quantitative RT-PCR enzyme expression analysis
gene P or Sb06g029550, quantitative RT-PCR enzyme expression analysis, genetic mapping, phylogenetic analysis and tree, recombinant expression of His-tagged enzyme in Escherichia coli strain BL21 Star(DE3)pLysS
gene SmDFR, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis, quantitative real-time PCR expression analysis, functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INV Sc1
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
the enzyme is highly induced by cutting stress
the enzyme is highly induced by wounding and pathogen invasion, analysis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidin accumulation
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
C252Y
cultivar Greenleaf Sb06g029550 has a point mutation that causes the amino acid change
additional information