Information on EC 1.3.99.28 - phytoene desaturase (neurosporene-forming)

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.3.99.28
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
phytoene desaturase (neurosporene-forming)
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REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
15-cis-phytoene + 3 acceptor = all-trans-neurosporene + 3 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
15-cis-phytoene + acceptor = all-trans-phytofluene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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all-trans-phytofluene + acceptor = all-trans-zeta-carotene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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all-trans-zeta-carotene + acceptor = all-trans-neurosporene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Carotenoid biosynthesis
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Metabolic pathways
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Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
15-cis-phytoene:acceptor oxidoreductase (neurosporene-forming)
This enzyme is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and catalyses up to three desaturation steps (cf. EC 1.3.99.29 [phytoene desaturase (zeta-carotene-forming)], EC 1.3.99.30 [phytoene desaturase (3,4-didehydrolycopene-forming)], EC 1.3.99.31 [phytoene desaturase (lycopene-forming)]). The enzyme is activated by FAD. NAD+, NADP+ or ATP show no activating effect [1].
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1,2-epoxyphytoene + acceptor
1,2-epoxyneurosporene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
15-cis-phytoene + 3 acceptor
all-trans-neurosporene + 3 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
15-cis-phytoene + acceptor
all-trans-phytofluene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
15-cis-phytoene + acceptor
all-trans-zeta-carotene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
15-cis-phytoene + FAD
all-trans-phytofluene + FADH2
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-neurosporene + acceptor
lycopene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-neurosporene + FAD
lycopene + FADH2
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-phytofluene + 2 acceptor
all-trans-neurosporene + 2 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
all-trans-phytofluene + acceptor
all-trans-zeta-carotene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-phytofluene + FAD
all-trans-zeta-carotene + FADH2
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
all-trans-zeta-carotene + acceptor
all-trans-neurosporene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-zeta-carotene + FAD
all-trans-neurosporene + FADH2
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
phytoene + acceptor
neurosporene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
15-cis-phytoene + 3 acceptor
all-trans-neurosporene + 3 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
15-cis-phytoene + acceptor
all-trans-phytofluene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
15-cis-phytoene + acceptor
all-trans-zeta-carotene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
15-cis-phytoene + FAD
all-trans-phytofluene + FADH2
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-neurosporene + acceptor
lycopene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-neurosporene + FAD
lycopene + FADH2
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-phytofluene + acceptor
all-trans-zeta-carotene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-phytofluene + FAD
all-trans-zeta-carotene + FADH2
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
all-trans-zeta-carotene + acceptor
all-trans-neurosporene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-zeta-carotene + FAD
all-trans-neurosporene + FADH2
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
additional information
?
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
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NAD+, NADP+ or ATP have no positive effect
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INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
Diphenylamine
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KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0048 - 0.0333
15-cis-phytoene
0.0331 - 0.0658
all-trans-neurosporene
0.0166
all-trans-zeta-carotene
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pH 8.0, 30C
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.23
Diphenylamine
Rhodobacter capsulatus
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pH 8.0, 30C
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.00029
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pH 8.0, 30C
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
His-tagged enzyme from Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) by nickel affinity chromatography
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli
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gene crtI, cloning and expression of wild-type and mutant enzymes in Escherichia coli strain DH5alpha
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gene crtI, cloning of the crt gene cluster crtCDEF, expression of His-tagged enzyme in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
gene crtI, phylogenetic tree, co-expression with 5 other enzymes of the carotenoid pathway from Pantoea agglomerans, i.e. IPP isomerase, FPP synthase, GGPP synthase, phytoene synthase, lycopene cyclase, beta-carotene hydrolase, and zeaxanthin glucosyltransferase, in Escherichia coli, functional complementation by CrtI of Brevibacterium linens, CGI, CrtI of Corynebacterium glutamicum, RSI, CrtI of Rhodobacter sphaeroides RCI, CrtI of Rhodobacter capsulatus, and RBI, CrtI of Rhodopirellula baltica, and the homologous complementation of CrtI from Pantoea agglomerans with the Pantoea agglomerans carotenogenic module expressing CrtEPAG -CrtBPAG
the phytoene desaturase gene, from Rhodobacter capsulatus is functionally complemented with a gene construct from Erwinia uredovora which encodes all enzymes responsible for formation of 15-cis phytoene in Escherichia coli
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
F166I
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mutation changes the product of phytoene desaturation from neurosporene to lycopene
H12Q
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mutation has little effect on the product formation
M402T
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mutation has a negative effect on percent lycopene production
V68D
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mutation changes the product of phytoene desaturation from neurosporene to lycopene
L153P/L278P
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site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows altered secondary structure and substrate desaturation level with increased lycopene production compared to the wild-type enzyme
L208F
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site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows altered secondary structure and substrate desaturation level with increased lycopene production compared to the wild-type enzyme
L208P
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site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows altered secondary structure compared to the wild-type enzyme
T256M/D355G/L424P
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site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows altered secondary structure and substrate desaturation level with increased lycopene production compared to the wild-type enzyme
Y44C/D53G/P134L/V395A
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site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows altered secondary structure and substrate desaturation level with increased lycopene production compared to the wild-type enzyme
additional information