Information on EC 2.3.3.16 - citrate synthase (unknown stereospecificity)

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.3.3.16
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
citrate synthase (unknown stereospecificity)
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REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
acetyl-CoA + H2O + oxaloacetate = citrate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Claisen condensation
hydrolysis
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
ethylene biosynthesis V (engineered)
-
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glyoxylate cycle
-
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itaconate biosynthesis
-
-
L-glutamine biosynthesis III
-
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methylaspartate cycle
-
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mixed acid fermentation
-
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partial TCA cycle (obligate autotrophs)
-
-
TCA cycle I (prokaryotic)
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TCA cycle II (plants and fungi)
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TCA cycle III (animals)
-
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TCA cycle IV (2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase)
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TCA cycle V (2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase)
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TCA cycle VII (acetate-producers)
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TCA cycle VIII (helicobacter)
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citric acid cycle
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
acetyl-CoA:oxaloacetate C-acetyltransferase (thioester-hydrolysing)
This entry has been included to accommodate those citrate synthases for which the stereospecificity with respect to C2 of oxaloacetate has not been established [cf. EC 2.3.3.1, citrate (Si)-synthase and EC 2.3.3.3, citrate (Re)-synthase].
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9027-96-7
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
hexameric type II citrate synthase
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain C58
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain C58
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
sea urchin
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain WS
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 2B2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DS2-3R
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
formerly Aspergillus nidulans
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain N400, CBS 120.49, gene citA
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain N400, CBS 120.49, gene citA
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain OP
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D101
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D101
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain HS2A2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain S2A1
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivars Zhongshuang 9, H305, Qing 8, 9558, H04, H1020, PH36, Huyou 17, GH01, Zhongshuang 6, 2021, and Zhongshuang 11
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D 1032
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D 1032
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
water melon, mitochondrial and glyoxysomal isoenzyme
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D 1047
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D 1047
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
basonym Alcaligenes eutrophus
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D 1870
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D 1870
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NC-4, ATCC 24697
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NC-4, ATCC 24697
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains X and Hanham
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isopod, crustacea
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isopod, crustacea
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CC 1192, bacteroids formed in symbiosis with Cicer arietinum plants
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CC 1192, bacteroids formed in symbiosis with Cicer arietinum plants
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TK794
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TK794
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D 1021
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D 1021
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Penicillium spiculisporum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
filamentous fungus; recessive gene cit1, mitochondrial isozyme
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 8602 mutant PAC514
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D 123
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D 123
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D 302
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D 302
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D 1086
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCIB 8296
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCIB 8296
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
marine, 2 enzyme forms with different molecular weight, kinetic and regulatory properties, dissociated CS I /native CS II
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D 1022
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D 1022
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 enzyme forms; strain DSM 4252
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MMY011
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Moneymaker
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Moneymaker
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Desiree; mitochondrial isozyme
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D 144
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D 144
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 98-3, DSM 639
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain W
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 122-1B3, ATCC 27658
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
acetyl-CoA + H2O + oxaloacetate
citrate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate + H2O
citrate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate + H2O
citrate + CoA + H+
show the reaction diagram
oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA + H2O
citrate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
propionyl-CoA + oxaloacetate + H2O
2-methylcitrate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
acetyl-CoA + H2O + oxaloacetate
citrate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate + H2O
citrate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
(NH4)2SO4
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activates at at least 0.5 mM
Ca2+
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as CaCl2, inhibition at concentrations higher than 50 mM
Na+
112.6% activity at 2 mM
phosphate
-
-
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-oxoglutarate
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate)
acetyl-CoA
ACMX
-
competitive inhibitor versus acetyl-CoA
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Ag+
almost complete inhibition at 2 mM
CaCl2
cAMP
-
no inhibition
Cations
-
monovalent and divalent
-
citrate
Co2+
22% inhibition at 2 mM
Cu2+
10% inhibition at 2 mM
dethiaacetyl-CoA
partial substrate
Dithionitrobenzoate
Penicillium spiculisporum
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-
elongation factor 1alpha
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causes polymerization of 49K protein, reduced activity
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Guanidinium chloride
-
irreversible inactivation of recombinant wild-type at 1.6 M and of recombinant mutant G196V at 0.2 M, at 0.5 M activation of the wild-type
H2O2
about 54% inhibition at 0.4 mM
Hg2+
95% inhibition at 2 mM
HgCl2
iodoacetamide
L-Malate
-
no inhibition
Lauroyl-CoA
Penicillium spiculisporum
-
-
MgCl2
Mn2+
40% inhibition at 2 mM
MnCl2
-
56% inhibition at 10 mM
N-ethylmaleimide
-
strong
NAD+
-
10 mM, 9% inhibition
NADP+
NADPH
Ni2+
21% inhibition at 2 mM
oxaloacetate
p-chloromercuribenzoate
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
60% inhibition at 0.1 mM, protection by oxaloacetate
Pb2+
almost complete inhibition at 2 mM
propionyl-CoA
-
competitive against acetyl-CoA
S-Carboxymethyl-CoA
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competitive inhibition versus acetyl-CoA, non-competitive inhibition versus oxaloacetate; inhibits the native enzyme competitively versus acetyl-CoA and non-competitively versus oxaloacetate
SDS
-
strong inhibition
succinyl-CoA
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mixed-type inhibition
Urea
-
irreversible inactivation of recombinant wild-type at 9.3 M and of recombinant mutant G196V at 5 M, at up to 8 M activation of the wild-type
additional information
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ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ammonium sulfate
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activates at 0.5 mM
Guanidinium chloride
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activation of recombinant wild-type 1.6fold at 0.5 M, inactivation at 1.6 M
light
-
light activates up to 1.4fold, regulation in correlation with photosynthesis
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thioredoxin
a strong and more than 8fold activation of enzyme activity is observed for isoform CS4 with Escherichia coli thioredoxin coupled to reduction by NTR and NADPH
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00067 - 125
acetyl-CoA
0.0005 - 0.001
citrate
0.002 - 90.3
oxaloacetate
0.0017 - 0.016
propionyl-CoA
additional information
additional information
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TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0001 - 262.8
acetyl-CoA
0.5 - 2100
citrate
0.0001 - 230.7
oxaloacetate
4 - 12
propionyl-CoA
additional information
additional information
-
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
4339 - 4500
acetyl-CoA
29
1827 - 20700
oxaloacetate
57
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.3 - 20
2-oxoglutarate
0.125 - 30
ATP
0.0017 - 12
NADH
0.8 - 4.9
NADPH
0.003 - 0.051
oxaloacetate
0.0024 - 0.0225
propionyl-CoA
0.00037 - 0.0024
S-Carboxymethyl-CoA
additional information
additional information
-
mutants, overview
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SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.00023 - 0.00028
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wild-type
0.00078
recombinant in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants
0.008
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recombinant purified mutant G196V
0.02
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recombinant enzyme in crude E. coli enzyme extract
0.045
-
crude extract
0.083
-
recombinant purified wild-type
0.23 - 0.28
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-
0.76
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isoenzyme CSI, Matrex Gel Red-A
0.764
-
purified glyoxysomal isozyme
0.78
transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing the Daucus carota citrate synthase
0.87
-
partially purified enzyme
0.99
-
glucose-grown cells, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
1.25
-
partially purified enzyme
1.26
-
acetate-grown cells, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
1.32
-
isoenzymes CSI and CSII, DEAE-Sephacel
2.6
-
partially purified enzyme
4.7
-
isozymes CS I and CS II
4.71
-
isoenzyme CSI, Sephadex G-200
11.5
-
isoenzyme CSII, Matrex Gel Red-A
14
-
partially purified enzyme
18
-
purified enzyme
18.8
-
partially purified enzyme
21.6
-
; purified enzyme
24
-
purified enzyme
25.8
-
purified enzyme
28
-
purified dimeric and hexameric enzyme form
30
-
purified recombinant enzyme from E. coli
35.1
-
purified enzyme
41.5
citrate synthase activity of a purified methylcitrate synthase
45
-
purified wild-type enzyme
50 - 60
Penicillium spiculisporum
-
partially purified enzyme
51.4
-
wild-type
52.3
-
purified enzyme
57
-
purified recombinant chimeric Acinetobacter-type protein with small E. coli domain
60
-
dimeric and hexameric enzyme
62.6
-
purified enzyme
64
-
purified enzyme
70
-
purified recombinant isozyme CS II
79
purified enzyme
88
-
purified wild-type enzyme
102.7
-
purified enzyme
120
-
purified recombinant chimeric E. coli-type protein with small Acinetobacter domain
213
-
purified fusion protein of citrate synthase and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase, coupled assay
230
-
purified enzyme
288
-
purified enzyme
471.7
-
partially purified enzyme
664.2
-
-
1190
-
partially purified enzyme
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7.4
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enzyme assay at
7.5 - 8
-
-
7.5
-
enzyme assay at
7.5 - 8
-
-
additional information
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5 - 9
nearly 50% of the activity is retained at pH 5.0 or 9.0
6 - 10
about 30% of maximal activity at pH 6 and at pH 10
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
23
-
enzyme assay at
34
-
enzyme assay at
55