Information on EC 2.4.1.228 - lactosylceramide 4-alpha-galactosyltransferase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.4.1.228
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
lactosylceramide 4-alpha-galactosyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide = UDP + alpha-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide
show the reaction diagram
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-
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REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
galactosyl group transfer
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis - globo and isoglobo series
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-
Metabolic pathways
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
UDP-galactose:beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide 4II-alpha-D-galactosyltransferase
For explanation of superscript II in systematic name, see {iupac/2carb/37#372::2-carb.37}.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
52725-57-2
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
New Zealand White rabbits, 18- to 90-days-old
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male Wistar rats
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-Gal + Galbeta1,4Glc-PAA
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
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i.e. Lac-PAA, precursor to Pk
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-
?
UDP-Gal + Galbeta1,4GlcNAcbeta1,3Galbeta1,4Glc-PAA
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. nLc4-PAA, precursor to P1
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-
?
UDP-Gal + GalNAcbeta1,3Galalpha1,4Galbeta1,4Glc-PAA
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. Gbeta4-PAA, precursor to NOR1
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-
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UDP-galactose + beta-D-galactosyl-(1,4)-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + alpha-D-galactosyl-(1,4)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1,4)-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + beta-D-galactosyl-(1,4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-alpha-D-galactosyl-(1,4)-beta-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + alpha-D-galactosyl-(1,4)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1,4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-alpha-D-galactosyl-(1,4)-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
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P1 antigen synthesis
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-
?
UDP-galactose + beta-D-galactosyl-(1-4)-D-glucosyl-(1-1)-ceramide
UDP + alpha-D-galactosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1-4)-D-glucosyl-(1-1)-ceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + beta-D-galactosyl-(1-4)-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + alpha-D-galactosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1-4)-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + galactosylceramide
?
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + lactose
?
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + lactosylceramide
UDP + globotriaosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-galactose + beta-D-galactosyl-(1,4)-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + alpha-D-galactosyl-(1,4)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1,4)-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + beta-D-galactosyl-(1,4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-alpha-D-galactosyl-(1,4)-beta-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + alpha-D-galactosyl-(1,4)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1,4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-alpha-D-galactosyl-(1,4)-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
P1 antigen synthesis
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + beta-D-galactosyl-(1-4)-D-glucosyl-(1-1)-ceramide
UDP + alpha-D-galactosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1-4)-D-glucosyl-(1-1)-ceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + beta-D-galactosyl-(1-4)-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + alpha-D-galactosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1-4)-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + lactosylceramide
UDP + globotriaosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
additional information
?
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METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Cu2+
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some activity
Ni2+
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some activity
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-deoxy-D-glucose
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inhibits the Gb3S promoter activity in dose dependent manner
DL-threo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol
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i.e. PPMP, a glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitor
mithramycin A
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inhibits the Gb3S promoter activity in dose dependent manner
phenyl-2-palmitylamino-3-pyrrolidino-1-propanol
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streptozotocin
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inhibits the Gb3S promoter activity in dose dependent manner
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
LPS
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TNF-alpha
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transcriptional factor Sp1
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additional information
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tumour stress activation of glucosylceramide synthase
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KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0013 - 0.445
lactosylceramide
0.03 - 0.52
UDP-galactose
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.0000001
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lactosylceramide as acceptor
0.0000247
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1.5-days-old animals
0.000067
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14-days-old animals
0.000174
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18-days-old animals
0.000256
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6-months-old animals
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.3
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about, assay at
6.5
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MES buffer, 0.25-0.5% sodium cholate
7
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THP-1 cells
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.7 - 7.4
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TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
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low, but definite, levels of Gb3/CD77 are expressed in the microvascular endothelial cells of the brain cortex
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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blood of a small p subject and a P1 control subject
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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small intestine
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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choriocarcinoma cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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stored at -80C until use
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
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THP-1, RPMI 8226, Daudi, and Raji cell lines with detectable enzyme activity, no detectable enzyme activity: K562, KG-1, HL-60, Reh, MOLT-4, CCRF-CEM cell lines
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
90000
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corresponding to the Stokes radius of 40 A, gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
?
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x * 37500, recombinant c-Myc- and His6-tagged fragment A4GALT(130-1059), SDS-PAGE
dimer
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alpha 1 * 65000 + beta 1 * 22000, linked through a disulfide bond, SDS-PAGE
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-20C, in 20% glycerol, stored at a concentration greater than 0.1 mg/ml without detectable loss of activity upon repeated freezing and thawing for 3 months
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-70C, however enzyme activity in RPMI 8226 cells destroyed by storage at -70C
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4C, stable for several weeks in the presence of 20% glycerol
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Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
recombinant c-Myc- and His6-tagged fragment A4GALT(130-1059) from Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells by nickel affinity chromatography
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Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
DNA sequence determination and analysis, functional expression in L-VTR1 cells, the recombinant cells produce high levels of P1 antigen in the cytoplasm with a small amount on the cell surface, expression as fusion protein with protein A secreted to the cell culture medium
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expressed in insect Namalwa cells
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expressed in mouse fibroblast L cells
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expression analysis
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expression of Gb3 synthase in transgenic TgG3S mice, and overexpression in COS-7 cells
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gene A4GALT, a fragment of the A4GALT gene spanning nucleotides 130-1059 of the open reading frame with C or G at position 631 respectively, is cloned in-frame with c-myc and hexahistidine tags and recombinantly expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells
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the human Gb3S promoter is cloned and characterized
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EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
10 mM 2-deoxy-D-glucose markedly reduces endogenous globotriaosylceramide synthase mRNA levels, can control globotriaosylceramide biosynthesis through the inhibition of globotriaosylceramide synthase transcription
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
medicine