Information on EC 2.4.1.43 - polygalacturonate 4-alpha-galacturonosyltransferase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.4.1.43
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
polygalacturonate 4-alpha-galacturonosyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
UDP-D-galacturonate + [(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonosyl]n = UDP + [(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
hexosyl group transfer
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-
-
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
homogalacturonan biosynthesis
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Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
UDP-D-galacturonate:(1->4)-alpha-poly-D-galacturonate 4-alpha-D-galacturonosyltransferase
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CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
37277-53-5
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Duchesne, cv. Tokyou-Kabocha
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. var. Alaska, pea
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
azuki bean
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mung beans
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
metabolism
pectin biosynthesis; pectin biosynthesis
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-D-galacturonate + (1,4-alpha-D-galacturonosyl)n
UDP + (1,4-alpha-D-galacturonosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
UDP-D-galacturonate + homogalacturonan
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-D-galacturonic acid + (1,4-alpha-D-galacturonosyl)n
UDP + (1,4-alpha-D-galacturonosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
UDP-D-galacturonic acid + 2-aminobenzamide-labeled oligogalacturonide
?
show the reaction diagram
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degree of polymerization between 12 and 17
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-
?
UDP-D-galacturonic acid + fluorogenic pyridylaminated-oligogalacturonic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
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degree of polymerization 7-14, galacturonic acid is transferred onto the nonreducing end of fluorogenic pyridylaminated-oligogalacturonic acid through alpha-1,4-linkages
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-
?
UDPgalacturonic acid + 4-nitrophenol
UDP + 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galacturonide
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-D-galacturonate + (1,4-alpha-D-galacturonosyl)n
UDP + (1,4-alpha-D-galacturonosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in biosynthesis of pectin oligomers, overview
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-
?
UDP-D-galacturonic acid + (1,4-alpha-D-galacturonosyl)n
UDP + (1,4-alpha-D-galacturonosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
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required for the biosynthesis of the cell wall pectic polysaccharide homogalacturonan
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?
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ca2+
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5 mM, 20% of activation with Mn2+
MnSO4
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stimulation
Na2SO4
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slight stimulation
NH4Cl
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slight stimulation
Zn2+
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5 mM, 8fold stimulation
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ADP
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10 mM, 60% inhibition
ATP
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10 mM, 83% inhibition
diphosphate
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weak
dithiothreitol
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10 mM, 61% inhibition
EDTA
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10 mM, 82% inhibition
EGTA
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10 mM, 96% inhibition
GTP
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10 mM, 80% inhibition
NaF
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10 mM, 56% inhibition
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
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2 mM, 10% inhibition
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
bovine serum albumin
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necessary in homogenization media
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Mersalyl
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maximal activation at 1 mM
Sucrose
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400 mM, 5fold increase of activity
Triton X-100
Triton X-102
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0.5%, acceptor acid-soluble polygalacturonic acid, 190% increase in activity
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UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
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5 mM, stimulation
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.011 - 0.044
fluorogenic pyridylaminated-oligogalacturonic acid
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0.0017 - 0.17
UDP-D-galacturonic acid
additional information
additional information
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Km for acid-soluble polygalacturonic acid of 10000 Da: 0.02 mg/ml
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SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.00095
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partially purified enzyme
0.0013 - 0.002
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activity in microsomes
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.3 - 7.8
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solubilized enzyme
6.8 - 7.8
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in the presence of 5 mM Mn2+ and 0.5% Triton X-100
7
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substrate fluorogenic pyridylaminated-oligogalacturonic acid
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.3 - 7
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33% of maximal activity at pH 5.3, 35% of maximal activity at pH 7.0
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
25 - 30
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second minor optimum at 45 or 50C
25 - 35
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in the presence of 5 mM Mn2+ and 0.5% Triton X-100
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
10 - 40
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approx. 40% of maximal activity at 10 and 40C
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
associated with galacturonosyltransferase7 in a complex, posttranslationally cleaved
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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catalytic side resides within the lumen
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
associated with galacturonosyltransferase1 in a complex
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
heterotrimer
1 * 75000, in a complex with posttranslationally cleaved galacturonosyltransferase1, SDS-PAGE, Western blot analysis; 2 * 60000, posttranslationally cleaved, in a complex with galacturonosyltransferase7, SDS-PAGE, Western blot analysis
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0
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24 h, complete inactivation
37
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5 min, complete inactivation
45
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90 min, complete loss of activity
50
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30 min, complete inactivation
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
presence of bovine serum albumin is essential for preparation
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STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-18C, 1,7 mM MnCl2, 11 days, 35% loss of activity
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-18C, approx. 3 weeks, complete inactivation
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-18C, without MnCl2, 11 days, 60% loss of activity
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Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
partial
partially from dark-grown cells
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solubilization from membranes with HEPES-buffer, pH 6.8, 40 mM CHAPS and 2 mM EDTA
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Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression of GAUT1 cDNA in the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293
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APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
analysis
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development of enzyme-bound solid-phase support containing long-pectic oligogalacturonides anchored to the resin material via disulfide-containing cleavable linker, enzyme is reversibly bound, for performance of solid-phase biosynthetic reaction to investigate the pectin oligomer biosynthesis, product identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, overview