Information on EC 2.4.2.24 - 1,4-beta-D-xylan synthase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.4.2.24
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
1,4-beta-D-xylan synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
UDP-D-xylose + [(1->4)-beta-D-xylan]n = UDP + [(1->4)-beta-D-xylan]n+1
show the reaction diagram
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REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
pentosyl group transfer
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
xylan biosynthesis
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Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
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Metabolic pathways
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
UDP-D-xylose:(1->4)-beta-D-xylan 4-beta-D-xylosyltransferase
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CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
37277-73-9
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
oat
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
poplar
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mung bean
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
corn
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
microsomes from transgenic tobacco BY2 cells coexpressing PtrGT43B and PtrGT43C exhibit a high XylT activity capable of generating beta-(1,4)-linked xylooligosaccharides, whereas little XylT activity is detected in microsomes with expression of PtrGT43B or PtrGT43C alone; microsomes from transgenic tobacco BY2 cells coexpressing PtrGT43B and PtrGT43C exhibit a high XylT activity capable of generating beta-(1,4)-linked xylooligosaccharides, whereas little XylT activity is detected in microsomes with expression of PtrGT43B or PtrGT43C alone
metabolism
IRX9 and IRX14 are xylosyltransferases that operate cooperatively in the elongation of the xylan backbone; IRX9 and IRX14 are xylosyltransferases that operate cooperatively in the elongation of the xylan backbone
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
pyridylaminated beta-(1,4)-xylotriose + UDP-D-xylose
pyridylaminated beta-(1,4)-xylotetraose + UDP
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
UDP-D-galacturonic acid + (1,4-beta-D-galacturonic acid)n
UDP + (1,4-beta-D-galacturonic acid)n+1
show the reaction diagram
homogalacturonan synthase activity (substrate: galacturonic acid, GalA) decreased in absence of ATCSLD5 (ATCSLD5-1 mutant line)
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UDP-D-xylose + ((1,4-beta-D-xylooligosaccharide)n)-anthranilic acid
UDP + ((1,4-beta-D-xylooligosaccharide)n+1)-anthranilic acid
show the reaction diagram
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0.1 mM UDP-xylose + 0.5 mM anthranilic acid (AA) labelled xylooligosaccharides (Xyl(2) to Xyl(6)) as acceptor, 200 microgram microsomes, 21C, pH 6.8, in presence of 5 mM MnCl2, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 0.5% Triton X-100
xylooligosaccharides (up to Xyl(12)) purified by HPLC and analysed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry
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?
UDP-D-xylose + (1,4-beta-D-xylan)7
UDP + (1,4-beta-D-xylan)8
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
UDP-D-xylose + (1,4-beta-D-xylan)8
UDP + (1,4-beta-D-xylan)9
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
UDP-D-xylose + (1,4-beta-D-xylan)9
UDP + (1,4-beta-D-xylan)10
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
UDP-D-xylose + (1,4-beta-D-xylan)n
UDP + (1,4-beta-D-xylan)n+1
show the reaction diagram
UDP-D-xylose + (1,4-beta-D-xylooligosaccharide)n
UDP + (1,4-beta-D-xylooligosaccharide)n+1
show the reaction diagram
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0.1 mM radiolabelled UDP-D-xylose + 0.2 microgram/microlitre (1,4-beta-D-xylopyranose)6, 100 microgram microsomes, 21C, pH 6.8, in presence of 5 mM MnCl2, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 0.5% Triton X-100, reaction dependent on time and protein concentration
reduction in XylT activity in microsomal fraction of stems from irx9 mutant plants compared to wild-type plants in presence of exogenous substrates can be abolished by complementation with wild-type IRX9 gene, product quantification by scintillation counting
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?
UDP-D-xylose + 4-O-methyl-glucuronoxylan
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
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?
UDP-D-xylose + arabinoxylan
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
UDP-D-xylose + beta-1,4-xylotetraose
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
UDP-D-xylose + beta-1,4-xylotriose
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
UDP-D-xylose + xylotetraose
?
show the reaction diagram
microsomes isolated from transgenic BY2 cells are tested for XylT activity using xylotetraose (Xyl4) as an acceptor and UDP-xylose as a donor. XylT activity can not use the xylose monomer as an acceptor. Xylosyl residues are readily transferred onto xylooligomers ranging from 2 to 6 residues, resulting in the production of xylooligosaccharides with up to 11 xylosyl residues
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?
UDP-D-xylose + [(1->4)-beta-D-xylan]n
UDP + [(1->4)-beta-D-xylan]n+1
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-D-xylose + (1,4-beta-D-xylan)n
UDP + (1,4-beta-D-xylan)n+1
show the reaction diagram
UDP-D-xylose + [(1->4)-beta-D-xylan]n
UDP + [(1->4)-beta-D-xylan]n+1
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
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no requirement for divalent metal ion
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
AMP
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CDPcholine
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n-octyl-beta-D-glucoside
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50% inhibition
sodium cholate
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complete inhibition
Sodium deoxycholate
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complete inhibition
UDP-D-glucuronic acid
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ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate
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i.e. CHAPS, slight activation
Brij-35
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slight activation
Triton X-100
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high activation at 0.5%
Triton X-102
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Tween 20
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UDP-D-glucuronic acid
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30% increased XylT activity in microsomal fractions of stems from wild-type plants possibly due to increased solubility of xylooligomers
Zwittergent 3-16
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additional information
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KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
10.6
(1,4-beta-D-xylopyranose)6
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microsomal fractions of stems from wild-type plants
2.1
pyridylaminated beta-(1,4)-xylotriose
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pH 6.8, 20C
0.4 - 5.9
UDP-D-xylose
5.27 - 5.9
xylotetraose
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.0000218
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with respect to (1,4-beta-D-xylopyranose)6, microsomal fractions of stems from wild-type plants
0.002
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xyloseoligosaccharides
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.5
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microsomal fractions of stems from wild-type plants
6.5 - 7.2
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crude extract
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
21
assay at; assay at
25
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assay at
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
10 - 20
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microsomal fractions of stems from wild-type plants
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
vasicular tissue, ATCSLD5 promoter driven beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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immature
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
vasicular tissue, ATCSLD5 promoter driven beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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enzyme activity varies according to developmental stage of the endosperm, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
high levels, otherwise ubiquitous (in silico analysis)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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differentiating into tracheary elements
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
weak expression in cortical and pith cells, ATCSLD5 promoter driven beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
weak expression, ATCSLD5 promoter driven beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression, possibly false positive due to loading of GUS reaction products via symplastic connections
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
shorter in absence of ATCSLD5 (ATCSLD5-1 mutant line) compared to wild-type plants, severe reduction in root length in presence of cellulose synthase inhibitor isoxaben abolished by complementation with wild-type ATCSLD5
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
vasicular tissue, ATCSLD5 promoter driven beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
high levels, otherwise ubiquitous (in silico analysis)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
sucrose, 0.4 M, stabilizes enzyme in crude extracts
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STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-15C, 50% inactivation of particulate system after 4-5 days
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0C, inactivation of particulate system after 2 days
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storage in liquid N2 keeps activity of particulate system constant over a period of 30 days
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Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
activity in microsomal fractions from stems, roots, leaves and seedlings, homogenized with mortar and pestle in 50 mM HEPES pH7.3, 0.4 M sucrose followed by differential centrifugation, storage at -80C
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GFP-Trap A agarose resin column chromatography
microsomal extraction by differential centrifugation using 50 mM HEPES-NaOH pH7.3, 400 microM sucrose, 4 mM dithiothreitol, EDTA for beta-(1,4)-xylan synthase activity measurements
preparation of microsomal fraction
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Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expressed in Pichia pastoris
expressed in tobacco BY2 cells; expressed in tobacco BY2 cells
genomic DNA from BAC clone T2I1 in (i) pGEMTeasy for expression in Escherichia coli XL1Blue and sequencing, (ii) pCAMBIA2300 for transformation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 and floral-flip plant transformation, (iii) pCAMBIA230035SuYFP (C-terminal yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) tag) and (iv) pCAMBIA330035SYFPu (N-terminal YFP tag) for expression and subcellular localization in Nicotiana benthamiana
heterologously expressed in tobacco BY2 cells; heterologously expressed in tobacco BY2 cells
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
biotechnology
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enzyme activity is hardly affected by addition of organic solvents