Information on EC 2.5.1.43 - nicotianamine synthase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.5.1.43
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
nicotianamine synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
3 S-adenosyl-L-methionine = 3 S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + nicotianamine
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
alkenyl group transfer
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
2'-deoxymugineic acid phytosiderophore biosynthesis
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L-nicotianamine biosynthesis
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methionine metabolism
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
S-adenosyl-L-methionine:S-adenosyl-L-methionine:S-adenosyl-Lmethionine 3-amino-3-carboxypropyltransferase
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CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
161515-44-2
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
strain CBS 195.57
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS 195.57
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glutamate
2 S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + thermoNicotianamine + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
p-amidinophenyl methanesulfonyl fluoride
?
show the reaction diagram
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-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
5'-S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + nicotianamine
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
?
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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the enzyme condenses three aminopropyl moieties of S-adenosylmethionine and the autocyclization of one moiety leads to the formation of an azetidine ring
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glutamate
2 S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + thermoNicotianamine + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
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the archaeal product analogue thermoNicotianamine differs from nicotianamine in the carboxy azetidine moiety of nicotianamine that is replaced by a glutamate moiety in thermoNicotianamine, overview
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?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
5'-S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + nicotianamine
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
?
show the reaction diagram
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
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pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7.5 - 10
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pH 7.5: about 20% of maximal activity, pH 10.0: about 50% of maximal activity
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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expression of Fe homeostasis-related genes in wild-type and transgenic overexpressing seedlings, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
30000
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and 60000, gel filtration
35000
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gel filtration
40000 - 50000
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gel filtration
60000
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and 30000, gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
?
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x * 30000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
at 20°C using the hanging drop vapor diffusion method
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diffraction to 1.7 A resolution, space group P212121
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purified NAS mutant E81Q complexed with both substrates, S-adenosyl-L-methionine and/or glutamate, or with reaction intermediate N-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)glutamic acid, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis
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pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
4
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overnight in 50 mM Tris, 1 mM EDTA, 3 mM dithiothreitol, pH 8.7 with HCl, 90% loss of activity
639734
5.5
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overnight in 50 mM Tris, 1 mM EDTA, 3 mM dithiothreitol, pH 8.7 with HCl, 80% loss of activity
639734
7
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activity is almost completely recovered after overnight exposure in 50 mM Tris, 1 mM EDTA, 3 mM dithiothreitol, pH 8.7 with HCl
639734
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
thiol proteases such as papain might digest nicotianamide synthase in crude extracts
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STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
4°C, in 50 mM Tris, 1 mM EDTA, 3 mM dithiothreitol, pH 8.7 with HCl, stable for about 1 week
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Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
recombinant, His-tagged protein
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Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
analysis of upstream region of nicotianamide synthase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana: presence of putative ERE-like sequence
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complementation of the Lycopersicon esculentum mutant chloronerva that is free of nicotinamine due to a defect in nicotinamide synthase
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expressed in Lolium perenne after particle bombardment transformation
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expressed in Nicotiana tabacum
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expressed in Nicotiana tabacum, expression is highly induced by Fe-deficiency in roots
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expressed in Nicotiana tabacum, expression is highly induced by Fe-deficiency in roots and in leaves
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expressed in Oryza sativa cv. Tsukinohikari under control of the pGluB-1 promoter after transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens
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expressed in Oryza sativa ssp. japonica cv. Taipei 309 under control of the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus after transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens
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expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
expressed in Schizosaccharomyces pombe zhf cells
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expression in Escherichia coli
expression of a barley HvNAS1 nicotinamine synthase gene promoter-gus fusion gene in transgenic tobacco is induced by Fe-deficiency in root
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expression of nicotianamine synthase in Oryza sativa seeds under the control of the maize ubiquitin promoter
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gene OsNAS2, overexpresion in Oryza sativa plants
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overexpressed as a C-terminal His tag protein in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)
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three cDNA clones osnas1, asnas2 and osnas3 from Fe-deficient rotts and a genomic fragment containing both OsNAS1 and OsNAS2
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three nicotianamine synthase genes: ZmNAS1, ZmNAS2 and ZmNAS3, fusion to the maltose-binding protein and production of the resulting fusion protein in Escherichia coli, ZmNAS1 and ZmNAS3 show nicotianamine synthase activity, ZmNAs2 does not
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transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants constitutively overexpress the enzyme from Hordeum vulgare. Nicotianamine synthase overexpression results in increased biosynthesis of nicotianamine in transgenic plants, which conferrs enhanced tolerance of high levels of metals, particularly nickel, to plants. Promoter activities of four nicotianamine synthase genes in Arabidopsis are all increased in response to excess nickel, suggesting that nicotianamine plays an important role in the detoxification of nickel in plants. Transgenic tobacco plants with a high level of nicotianamine grew well in a nickel-enriched serpentine soil without developing any symptoms of nickel toxicity
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EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
in leaves and roots, NAS4 were up-regulated 2- to 3fold by Ni treatment; in leaves, NAS3 is up-regulated 3fold by Ni treatment; in roots, NAS1 is up-regulated twice by Ni treatment; iron deficiency markedly increases expression of NAS4 in leaves; iron deficiency slightly increases expression of NAS2 in roots
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iron deficiency significantly decreases expression of NAS3 in leaves
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OsNAS2 is iron deficiency-inducible, while Zn-, Cu-, and Mn-deficiencies have no effect on the gene expression
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
E81Q/Y107F
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inactive mutant
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
agriculture
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the nicotianamine synthase gene may be a suitable candidate for making a transgenic plant tolerant to Fe-deficiency