1.5.1.2: pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase

This is an abbreviated version!
For detailed information about pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, go to the full flat file.

Word Map on EC 1.5.1.2

Reaction

L-proline
+
NAD(P)+
=
1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate
+
NAD(P)H
+
H+

Synonyms

1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, DELTA1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, L-proline oxidase, L-proline-NAD(P)+ 5-oxidoreductase, L-proline:NAD(P)+ 5-oxidoreductase, MTR_7g090160, NADPH-L-DELTA'-pyrroline carboxylic acid reductase, P5C reductase, P5CDH, P5CR, PO, POX, proline oxidase, Pycr1, pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, reductase, pyrroline-5-carboxylate

ECTree

     1 Oxidoreductases
         1.5 Acting on the CH-NH group of donors
             1.5.1 With NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor
                1.5.1.2 pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase

Reference

Reference on EC 1.5.1.2 - pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase

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REF.
AUTHORS
TITLE
JOURNAL
VOL.
PAGES
YEAR
ORGANISM (UNIPROT)
PUBMED ID
SOURCE
Hill, D.L.; Chambers, P.
The biosynthesis of proline by Tetrahymena pyriformis
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
148
435-447
1967
Tetrahymena pyriformis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Krishna, R.V.; Beilstein, P.; Leisinger, T.
Biosynthesis of proline in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Properties of gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase
Biochem. J.
181
223-230
1979
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Meister, A.; Radhakrishnan, A.N.; Buckley, S.D.
Enzymatic synthesis of L-pipecolic acid and L-proline
J. Biol. Chem.
229
789-800
1957
Pisum sativum, Rattus norvegicus, Vigna radiata var. radiata
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Hull, E.P.; Green, P.M.; Arst, H.N.; Scazzocchio, C.
Cloning and physical characterization of the L-proline catabolism gene cluster of Aspergillus nidulans
Mol. Microbiol.
3
553-559
1989
Aspergillus nidulans
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Herzfeld, A.; Mezl, V.A.; Knox, W.E.
Enzymes metabolizing delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate in rat tissues
Biochem. J.
166
95-103
1977
Rattus norvegicus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fahmy, A.S.; Mohamed, S.A.; Girgis, R.B.; Abdel-Ghaffar, F.A.
Enzymes of DELTA1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate metabolism in the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii during embryogenesis. Purification and characterization of DELTA1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenases
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B
118
229-237
1997
Hyalomma dromedarii
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Donald, S.P.; Sun, X.Y.; Hu, C.A.A.; Yu, J.; Mei, J.M.; Valle, D.; Phang, J.M.
Proline oxidase, encoded by p53-induced gene-6, catalyzes the generation of proline-dependent reactive oxygen species
Cancer Res.
61
1810-1815
2001
Homo sapiens
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kohl, D.H.; Lin, J.J.; Shearer, G.; Schubert, K.R.
Activities of the pentose phosphate pathway and enzymes of proline metabolism in legume root nodules
Plant Physiol.
94
1258-1264
1990
Arachis hypogaea, Cajanus cajan, Glycine max, Lupinus luteus, Medicago sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum, Vigna unguiculata
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rayapati, P.J.; Stewart, C.R.; Hack, E.
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase is in pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaf chloroplasts
Plant Physiol.
91
581-586
1989
Pisum sativum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Laliberte, G.; Hellebust, J.A.
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase in Chlorella atuotrophica and chlorella saccharophila in relation to osmoregulation
Plant Physiol.
91
917-923
1989
Chlorella vulgaris var. autotrophica, Chloroidium saccharophilum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kohl, D.H.; Schubert, K.R.; Carter, M.B.; Hagedorn, C.H.; Shearer, G.
Proline metabolism in N2-fixing root nodules: energy transfer and regulation of purine synthesis
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
85
2036-2040
1988
Glycine max
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Hagedorn, C.H.
Demonstration of a NADPH-linked delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-proline shuttle in a cell-free rat liver system
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
884
11-17
1986
Rattus norvegicus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Shiono, T.; Kador, P.F.; Kinoshita, J.J.
Purification and characterization of rat lens pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
881
72-78
1986
Rattus norvegicus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Krueger, R.; Jger, H.J.; Hintz, M.; Pahlich, E.
Purification to homogeneity of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase of barley
Plant Physiol.
80
142-144
1986
Hordeum vulgare
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Elthon, T.E.; Stewart, C.R.
Effects of the proline analog L-theazolidine-4-carboxylic acid on proline metabolism
Plant Physiol.
74
213-218
1984
Hordeum vulgare, Vigna radiata
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Hagedorn, C.H.; Phang, J.M.
Transfer of reducing equivalents into mitochondria by the interconversions of proline and delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
225
95-101
1983
Rattus norvegicus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Deutch, A.H.; Smith, C.J.; Rushlow, K.E.; Kretschmer, P.J.
Escherichia coli delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase: gene sequence, protein overproduction and purification
Nucleic Acids Res.
10
7701-7714
1982
Escherichia coli
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Matsuzawa, T.
Purification and characterization of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase from bovine retina
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
717
215-219
1982
Bos taurus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Matsuzawa, T.; Ishiguro, I.
Delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase from bakers yeast: further purification by affinity chromatography with 5 AMP-Sepharose 4B
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
616
381-383
1980
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Matsuzawa, T.; Ishiguro, I.
Delta 1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase from Bakers yeast. Purification, properties and its application in the assays of L-delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate and L-ornithine in tissue
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
613
318-323
1980
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Tsuyama, S.; Higashimo, T.; Miura, K.
The distribution of pyrroline carboxylate reductase and proline oxidase in the larva of the blowfly, Aldrichina grahami
Experientia
36
1037-1038
1980
Aldrichina grahami
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Yeh, G.C.; Phang, J.M.
The function of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase in human erythrocytes
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
94
450-457
1980
Homo sapiens
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Costilow, R.N.; Cooper, D.
Identity of proline dehydrogenase and delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid reductase in Clostridium sporogenes
J. Bacteriol.
134
139-146
1978
Clostridium sporogenes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Miler, P.A.; Stewart, C.R.
Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid reductase from soybean leaves
Phytochemistry
15
1855-1857
1976
Glycine max
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rossi, J.R.; Vender, J.; Berg, C.M.; Coleman, W.H.
Partial purification and some properties of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase from Escherichia coli
J. Bacteriol.
129
108-114
1977
Escherichia coli
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rena, A.B.; Splittstoesser, W.E.
Proline dehydrogenase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase from pumpkin cotylenons
Phytochemistry
14
657-661
1975
Cucurbita moschata
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Valle, D.; Downing, S.J.; Phang, J.M.
Proline inhibition of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase: differences in enzymes obtained from animal and tissue culture sources
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
54
1418-1424
1973
Cricetulus griseus, Homo sapiens, Rattus norvegicus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Phang, J.M.; Downing, S.J.; Valle, D.
A radioisotopic assay for delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase
Anal. Biochem.
55
266-271
1973
Rattus norvegicus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Splittstoesser, S.A.; Splittstoesser, E.E.
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase from cucurbita cotyledons
Phytochemistry
12
1565-1568
1973
Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita moschata
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Strecker, H.J.
DELTA1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (calf liver) (reduction of DELTA1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate to proline)
Methods Enzymol.
17B
258-261
1971
Bos taurus
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Adams, E.; Goldstone, A.
Hydroxyproline metabolism. III. Enzymatic synthesis of hydroxyproline from Delta 1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate
J. Biol. Chem.
235
3499-3503
1960
Bos taurus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Yura, T.; Vogel, H.J.
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase of Neurospora crassa: partial purification and some properties
J. Biol. Chem.
234
335-338
1959
Escherichia coli, Neurospora crassa
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Noguchi, M.; Koiwai, A.; Tamaki, E.
Determination of P5C reductase activity in the proline mutant
Agric. Biol. Chem.
30
452
1966
Nicotiana tabacum
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Verbruggen, N.; Villarroel, R.; Van Montagu, M.
Osmoregulation of a pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase gene in Arabidopsis thaliana
Plant Physiol.
103
771-781
1993
Arabidopsis thaliana
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Basch, J.J.; Wickham, E.D.; Farrell, H.M., Jr.
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase in lactating bovine mammary glands
J. Dairy Sci.
79
1361-1368
1996
Bos taurus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chilson, O.P.; Kelly-Chilson, A.E.; Diani, J.
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductases in soybean nodules: the enzymes in host cytosol and bacteroids are antigenically distinct
Plant Sci.
122
43-50
1997
Glycine max
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Deutch, C.E.; Klarstrom, J.L.; Link, C.L.; Ricciardi, D.L.
Oxidation of L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate by DELTA1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase in Escherichia coli
Curr. Microbiol.
42
442-446
2001
Escherichia coli
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fujii, T.; Mukaihara, M.; Agematu, H.; Tsunekawa, H.
Biotransformation of L-lysine to L-pipecolic acid catalyzed by L-lysine 6-aminotransferase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
66
622-627
2002
Escherichia coli
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Hayward, D.C.; Delaney, S.J.; Campbell, H.D.; Ghysen, A.; Benzer, S.; Kasprzak, A.B.; Cotsell, J.N.; Young, I.G.; Miklos, G.L.G.
The sluggish-A gene of Drosophila melanogaster is expressed in the nervous system and encodes proline oxidase, a mitochondrial enzyme involved in glutamate biosynthesis
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
90
2979-2983
1993
Drosophila melanogaster
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Hua, X.J.; Van De Cotte, B.; Van Montagu, M.; Verbruggen, N.
Developmental regulation of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase gene expression in Arabidopsis
Plant Physiol.
114
1215-1224
1997
Arabidopsis thaliana
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kenklies, J.; Ziehn, R.; Fritsche, K.; Pich, A.; Andreesen, J.R.
Proline biosynthesis from L-ornithine in Clostridium sticklandii: purification of DELTA1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, and sequence and expression of the encoding gene, proC
Microbiology
145
819-826
1999
Acetoanaerobium sticklandii
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lewis, M.L.; Martin, S.L.; Rowe, C.J.; Sutherland, J.D.; Wilson, E.J.; Wright, M.C.
Reduction of DELTA1-pyrroline-2-carboxylic acid to proline in Escherichia coli: lack of involvement of glutamate dehydrogenase and DELTA1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
3
1197-1202
1993
Escherichia coli
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Murahama, M.; Yoshida, T.; Hayashi, F.; Ichino, T.; Sanada, Y.; Wada, K.
Purification and characterization of DELTA1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase isoenzymes, indicating differential distribution in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves
Plant Cell Physiol.
42
742-750
2001
Spinacia oleracea
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Haslett, M.R.; Pink, D.; Walters, B.; Brosnan, M.E.
Assay and subcellular localization of pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase in rat liver
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
1675
81-86
2004
Rattus norvegicus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kamiya, A.; Inoue, Y.; Kodama, T.; Gonzalez, F.J.
Hepatocyte nuclear factors 1alpha and 4alpha control expression of proline oxidase in adult liver
FEBS Lett.
578
63-68
2004
Mus musculus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Maxwell, S.A.; Rivera, A.
Proline oxidase induces apoptosis in tumor cells, and its expression is frequently absent or reduced in renal carcinomas
J. Biol. Chem.
278
9784-9789
2003
Homo sapiens
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Liu, Y.; Borchert, G.L.; Donald, S.P.; Surazynski, A.; Hu, C.A.; Weydert, C.J.; Oberley, L.W.; Phang, J.M.
MnSOD inhibits proline oxidase-induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells
Carcinogenesis
26
1335-1342
2005
Homo sapiens
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rivera, A.; Maxwell, S.A.
The p53-induced gene-6 (proline oxidase) mediates apoptosis through a calcineurin-dependent pathway
J. Biol. Chem.
280
29346-29354
2005
Homo sapiens
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pandhare, J.; Cooper, S.K.; Phang, J.M.
Proline oxidase, a proapoptotic gene, is induced by troglitazone: evidence for both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent and -independent mechanisms
J. Biol. Chem.
281
2044-2052
2006
Homo sapiens
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Nocek, B.; Chang, C.; Li, H.; Lezondra, L.; Holzle, D.; Collart, F.; Joachimiak, A.
Crystal structures of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase from human pathogens Neisseria meningitides and Streptococcus pyogenes
J. Mol. Biol.
354
91-106
2005
Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pyogenes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Meng, Z.; Lou, Z.; Liu, Z.; Li, M.; Zhao, X.; Bartlam, M.; Rao, Z.
Crystal structure of human pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase
J. Mol. Biol.
359
1364-1377
2006
Homo sapiens
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Liu, Y.; Borchert, G.L.; Surazynski, A.; Hu, C.A.; Phang, J.M.
Proline oxidase activates both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways for apoptosis: the role of ROS/superoxides, NFAT and MEK/ERK signaling
Oncogene
25
5640-5647
2006
Homo sapiens
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Yang, Y.; Xu, S.; Zhang, M.; Jin, R.; Zhang, L.; Bao, J.; Wang, H.
Purification and characterization of a functionally active Mycobacterium tuberculosis pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase
Protein Expr. Purif.
45
241-248
2006
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Meng, Z.; Lou, Z.; Liu, Z.; Hui, D.; Bartlam, M.; Rao, Z.
Purification, characterization, and crystallization of human pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase
Protein Expr. Purif.
49
83-87
2006
Homo sapiens, Homo sapiens (P32322)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Veeranagamallaiah, G.; Chandraobulreddy, P.; Jyothsnakumari, G.; Sudhakar, C.
Glutamine synthetase expression and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity influence proline accumulation in two cultivars of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) with differential salt sensitivity
Environ. Exp. Bot.
60
239-244
2007
Setaria italica
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Phang, J.M.; Pandhare, J.; Zabirnyk, O.; Liu, Y.
PPARgamma and proline oxidase in cancer
PPAR Res.
2008
542694
2008
Homo sapiens
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Guernsey, D.L.; Jiang, H.; Evans, S.C.; Ferguson, M.; Matsuoka, M.; Nightingale, M.; Rideout, A.L.; Provost, S.; Bedard, K.; Orr, A.; Dube, M.P.; Ludman, M.; Samuels, M.E.
Mutation in pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 gene in families with cutis laxa type 2
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
85
120-129
2009
Homo sapiens, Homo sapiens (P32322)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Meng, Z.; Liu, Z.; Lou, Z.; Gong, X.; Cao, Y.; Bartlam, M.; Zhang, K.; Rao, Z.
Purification, characterization and crystallization of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase from the hyperthermophilic archeon Sulfolobus Solfataricus
Protein Expr. Purif.
64
125-130
2009
Saccharolobus solfataricus (Q97ZT3), Saccharolobus solfataricus, Saccharolobus solfataricus P2 (Q97ZT3), Saccharolobus solfataricus P2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fonknechten, N.; Perret, A.; Perchat, N.; Tricot, S.; Lechaplais, C.; Vallenet, D.; Vergne, C.; Zaparucha, A.; Le Paslier, D.; Weissenbach, J.; Salanoubat, M.
A conserved gene cluster rules anaerobic oxidative degradation of L-ornithine
J. Bacteriol.
191
3162-3167
2009
Acetoanaerobium sticklandii (O87725)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Zabirnyk, O.; Liu, W.; Khalil, S.; Sharma, A.; Phang, J.M.
Oxidized low-density lipoproteins upregulate proline oxidase to initiate ROS-dependent autophagy
Carcinogenesis
31
446-454
2010
Homo sapiens
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Liu, W.; Zabirnyk, O.; Wang, H.; Shiao, Y.H.; Nickerson, M.L.; Khalil, S.; Anderson, L.M.; Perantoni, A.O.; Phang, J.M.
miR-23b targets proline oxidase, a novel tumor suppressor protein in renal cancer
Oncogene
29
4914-4924
2010
Homo sapiens
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Forlani, G.; Petrollino, D.; Fusetti, M.; Romanini, L.; Nocek, B.; Joachimiak, A.; Berlicki, L.; Kafarski, P.
DELTA1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase as a new target for therapeutics: inhibition of the enzyme from Streptococcus pyogenes and effects in vivo
Amino Acids
42
2283-2291
2012
Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Petrollino, D.; Forlani, G.
Coenzyme preference of Streptococcus pyogenes delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase: evidence supporting NADPH as the physiological electron donor
Amino Acids
43
493-497
2012
Streptococcus pyogenes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Forlani, G.; Berlicki, L.; Duo, M.; Dziedziola, G.; Giberti, S.; Bertazzini, M.; Kafarski, P.
Synthesis and evaluation of effective inhibitors of plant delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase
J. Agric. Food Chem.
61
6792-6798
2013
Arabidopsis thaliana
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Singh, P.; Tiwari, A.; Singh, S.; Asthana, R.
Proline biosynthesizing enzymes (glutamate 5-kinase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase) from a model cyanobacterium for desiccation tolerance
Physiol. Mol. Biol. Plants
19
521-528
2013
Anabaena sp., Anabaena sp. PCC 7120
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ruszkowski, M.; Nocek, B.; Forlani, G.; Dauter, Z.
The structure of Medicago truncatula delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase provides new insights into regulation of proline biosynthesis in plants
Front. Plant Sci.
6
869
2015
Medicago truncatula (G7KRM5), Medicago truncatula
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Christensen, E.M.; Patel, S.M.; Korasick, D.A.; Campbell, A.C.; Krause, K.L.; Becker, D.F.; Tanner, J.J.
Resolving the cofactor-binding site in the proline biosynthetic enzyme human pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1
J. Biol. Chem.
292
7233-7243
2017
Homo sapiens, Homo sapiens (P32322)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Struys, E.A.; Jansen, E.E.; Salomons, G.S.
Human pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (PYCR1) acts on delta(1)-piperideine-6-carboxylate generating L-pipecolic acid
J. Inherit. Metab. Dis.
37
327-332
2014
Homo sapiens
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Giberti, S.; Funck, D.; Forlani, G.
delta1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase from Arabidopsis thaliana: stimulation or inhibition by chloride ions and feedback regulation by proline depend on whether NADPH or NADH acts as co-substrate
New Phytol.
202
911-919
2014
Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis thaliana (F4K884)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team