Information on EC 1.1.1.28 - D-lactate dehydrogenase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Archaea, Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.1.1.28
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
D-lactate dehydrogenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
(R)-lactate + NAD+ = pyruvate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
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redox reaction
reduction
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
heterolactic fermentation
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L-alanine degradation II (to D-lactate)
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mixed acid fermentation
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superpathway of fermentation (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
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superpathway of glucose and xylose degradation
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vancomycin resistance I
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alanine metabolism
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Pyruvate metabolism
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Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
(R)-lactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase
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CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9028-36-8
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
gene APE_0487; gene APE_0487
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
seaworm
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Allomyces sp.
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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F8RPR8
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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F8RPR8
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
bivalve mollusc
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain JCM 8532
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain JCM 8532
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
black abalone
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
land snail
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
slime mold
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mutant strain RM2-24 derived from strain NCIM 2368, which is derived from strain ATCC 8000
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus jugurt-helveticus
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus plantarum 39 / NRIC 1067 / ATCC 14917 / DSM 20174
enzyme activity appears in late stage of logarithmic growth, increase of activity due to growth in presence of 50 mM sodium acetate
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme activity appears in late stage of logarithmic growth, increase of activity due to growth in presence of 50 mM sodium acetate
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus sakei NRIC 1071 / ATCC 15521 / NCIMB 1071
enzyme activity appears in late stage of logarithmic growth, increase of activity due to growth in presence of 50 mM sodium acetate
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene ldhD or LEUM 1756
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
horseshoe crab
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
No. 7, grown photoanaerobically on lactate
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from soil
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from soil
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated as high producer of enzyme, growth under anaerobic conditions
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
metabolism
physiological function
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thermostable D-lactate dehydrogenase is a key enzyme for the production of the D-form of lactic acid from pyruvate concomitant with the oxidation of NADH to NAD+
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(R)-lactate + NAD(P)+
pyruvate + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
(R)-lactate + NAD+
pyruvate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
(R)-lactate + NAD+
pyruvate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
2-ketocaproate + NADH
2-hydroxycaproate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
2-ketoisocaproate + NADH
2-hydroxyisocaproate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
2-ketoisovalerate + NADH
2-hydroxyisovalerate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
2-ketovalerate + NADH
2-hydroxyvalerate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
2-oxo-4-phenyl-butyric acid + NADH + H+
(R)-2-hydroxy-4-phenyl-butyric acid + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
2-oxo-4-phenylbutyric acid + NADH + H+
(R)-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
2-oxobutyrate + NADH
2-hydroxybutyrate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
2-oxobutyrate + NADH + H+
2-hydroxybutyrate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
2-oxobutyric acid + NADH + H+
(R)-2-hydroxybutyric acid + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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ir
2-oxocaproate + NADH + H+
2-hydroxycaproate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
2-oxoglutarate + NADH + H+
2-hydroxypentanedioate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
2-oxoisocaproate + NADH + H+
2-hydroxyisocaproate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
2-oxoisovalerate + NADH + H+
2-hydroxyisovalerate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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r
2-oxovalerate + NADH + H+
2-hydroxyvalerate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
3,4-dihydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + NADH + H+
(R)-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
alpha-ketobutyrate + NADH
2-hydroxybutyrate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
bromopyruvate + NADH
3-bromo-2-hydroxypropanoate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
D-3-phenylpyruvate + NADH + H+
D-3-phenyllactate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
D-lactate + cytochrome c2ox
pyruvate + cytochrome c2red
show the reaction diagram
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?
D-lactate + NAD+
pyruvate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
DL-2-hydroxybutyrate + NAD+
2-oxobutyrate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
DL-2-hydroxybutyrate + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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about 44% of activity against D-lactate
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glyoxylate + NADH
hydroxyacetic acid + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
glyoxylate + NADH + H+
hydroxyacetate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
glyoxylate + NADH + H+
hydroxyacetic acid + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
hydroxypyruvate + NADH
glycerate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
hydroxypyruvate + NADH + H+
glycerate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
methylpyruvate + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
oxaloacetate + NADH
malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
D-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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r
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
oxaloacetic acid + NADH + H+
(R)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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ir
phenylpyruvate + NADH
phenyllactate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
phenylpyruvate + NADH + H+
(R)-3-phenyllactate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
phenylpyruvate + NADH + H+
D-phenyllactate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate + NAD(P)H + H+
(R)-lactate + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate + NADH
(R)-lactate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate + NADH + H+
(R)-lactate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(R)-lactate + NAD+
pyruvate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
(R)-lactate + NAD+
pyruvate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
D-3-phenylpyruvate + NADH + H+
D-3-phenyllactate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
D-lactate + NAD+
pyruvate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
O66939
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r
phenylpyruvate + NADH + H+
(R)-3-phenyllactate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate + NADH
(R)-lactate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate + NADH + H+
(R)-lactate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
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METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ni2+
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activates by 35% at 1 mM
additional information
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poor effects by 1 mM Ca2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Ba2+, and Co2+
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-oxobutyrate
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substrate inhibition
Ba2+
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slight inhibition at 1 mM
Fe2+
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inhibits 25% at 1 mM
iodoacetamide
iodoacetate
Mn2+
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slight inhibition at 1 mM
oxalate
oxaloacetate
oxamate
p-chloromercuribenzoate
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p-Chloromercuriphenyl sulfonic acid
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p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
phenylhydrazine
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up to 45% inhibition
pyruvate
SDS
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over 95% inhibition at 1 mM
Sodium arsenite
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ZnSO4
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1 mM, 80% inhibition, EDTA restores
additional information
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ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-mercaptoethanol
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strongly reducing enviroment required
fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
fructose 1,6-diphosphate
additional information
no activation of the enzyme by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and Mg2+
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KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.59 - 1250
(R)-lactate
0.38 - 20.8
2-Ketobutyrate
1.18 - 189
2-ketocaproate
15.5
2-Ketoglutarate
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30°C, pH 5.5, wild-type enzyme
0.124 - 31
2-ketoisocaproate
5.5 - 18.6
2-ketoisovalerate
0.15 - 17
2-Ketovalerate
0.31 - 58
2-oxobutyrate
2.6 - 5.8
2-oxocaproate
3.8 - 12
2-oxoisocaproate
3.5
2-oxoisovalerate
pH 7.0, 30°C, recombinant enzyme
0.68 - 4
2-oxovalerate
4.4 - 10
alpha-Ketobutyrate
0.8
D-lactate
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pH 8.0, 30°C
19
DL-2-hydroxybutyrate
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pH 8.0, 25°C
5.4 - 100
glyoxylate
0.28 - 53
Hydroxypyruvate
0.00044 - 2.9
NAD+
0.00021 - 2.83
NADH
0.0035
NADPH
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1.7 - 54
oxaloacetate
0.03 - 22
phenylpyruvate
0.07 - 31
pyruvate
additional information
additional information
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