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Information on EC - glutaredoxin-dependent peroxiredoxin

for references in articles please use BRENDA:EC1.11.1.25

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IUBMB Comments

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a ubiquitous family of antioxidant proteins. They can be divided into three classes: typical 2-Cys, atypical 2-Cys and 1-Cys peroxiredoxins . The peroxidase reaction comprises two steps centred around a redox-active cysteine called the peroxidatic cysteine. All three peroxiredoxin classes have the first step in common, in which the peroxidatic cysteine attacks the peroxide substrate and is oxidized to S-hydroxycysteine (a sulfenic acid) (see mechanism). The second step of the peroxidase reaction, the regeneration of cysteine from S-hydroxycysteine, distinguishes the three peroxiredoxin classes. For typical 2-Cys Prxs, in the second step, the peroxidatic S-hydroxycysteine from one subunit is attacked by the ‘resolving’ cysteine located in the C-terminus of the second subunit, to form an intersubunit disulfide bond, which is then reduced by one of several cell-specific thiol-containing reductants completing the catalytic cycle. In the atypical 2-Cys Prxs, both the peroxidatic cysteine and its resolving cysteine are in the same polypeptide, so their reaction forms an intrachain disulfide bond. To recycle the disulfide, known atypical 2-Cys Prxs appear to use thioredoxin as an electron donor. The 1-Cys Prxs conserve only the peroxidatic cysteine, so its regeneration involves direct interaction with a reductant molecule. Glutaredoxin-dependent peroxiredoxins have been reported from bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. These enzymes are often able to use an alternative reductant such as thioredoxin or glutathione.

The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

peroxiredoxin-glutaredoxin, prxiib, prx5-grx, more

glutaredoxin + ROOH = glutaredoxin disulfide + H2O + ROH
show the reaction diagram
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