BRENDA - Enzyme Database
show all sequences of 1.1.99.24

Identification of the gene encoding hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase, an enzyme that metabolizes 4-hydroxybutyrate

Kardon, T.; Noel, G.; Vertommen, D.; Van Schaftingen, E.; FEBS Lett. 580, 2347-2350 (2006)

Data extracted from this reference:

Activating Compound
Activating Compound
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
no effect by EDTA and EGTA
Rattus norvegicus
Cloned(Commentary)
Cloned (Commentary)
Organism
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression in HEK-293 cells as soluble protein
Mus musculus
Inhibitors
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
1,10-phenanthroline
; IC50: 0.75 mM
Rattus norvegicus
cyanide
; IC50: 0.075 mM
Rattus norvegicus
additional information
no effect by EDTA and EGTA; no inhibition with EDTA, EGTA
Rattus norvegicus
KM Value [mM]
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
-
additional information
no activity with L-isomer of 2-hydroxybutyrate, Km for succinate semialdehyde is below 0.01 mM, 30°C, pH 7.1
Rattus norvegicus
0.01
-
Succinic semialdehyde
below, pH 7.1, 30°C
Rattus norvegicus
0.06
-
4-hydroxybutyrate
+/- 0.006 mM, 30°C, pH 7.1; pH 7.1, 30°C
Rattus norvegicus
0.067
-
4-hydroxybutyrate
+/-0.012 mM, in overepressed HEK cells, in presence of 0.5 mM 2-oxoglutarate
Homo sapiens
0.067
-
4-hydroxybutyrate
pH 7.1, 30°C, recombinant enzyme
Mus musculus
0.077
-
2-oxoglutarate
+/-0.009 mM, in overexpressed HEK cells, in presence of 0.1 mM 4-hydroxybutyrate
Homo sapiens
0.077
-
2-oxoglutarate
pH 7.1, 30°C, recombinant enzyme
Mus musculus
0.085
-
2-oxoglutarate
+/-0.007 mM, 30°C, pH 7.1; pH 7.1, 30°C
Rattus norvegicus
4.5
-
D-2-hydroxybutyrate
no activity with L-isomer, 30°C, pH 7.1
Rattus norvegicus
4.5
-
D-2-hydroxyglutarate
pH 7.1, 30°C
Rattus norvegicus
Localization
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
mitochondrion
-
Rattus norvegicus
5739
-
Metals/Ions
Metals/Ions
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
bi or trivalent, no stimulation with 0.01-0.05 mM Fe2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Mg2+ or Ca2+; not affected by 0.5 mM Fe2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, and Zn2+, or 1 mM Mg2+ and Ca2+
Rattus norvegicus
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
45000
50000
-
Rattus norvegicus
45000
55000
gel filtration
Rattus norvegicus
50000
-
1 * 50000, about, SDS-PAGE
Rattus norvegicus
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
ID
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
Homo sapiens
-
D-2-hydroxyglutarate + succinate semialdehyde
-
-
?
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
Rattus norvegicus
-
D-2-hydroxyglutarate + succinate semialdehyde
-
-
?
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
Rattus norvegicus
-
succinic semialdehyde + D-2-hydroxyglutarate
-
-
r
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
Mus musculus
recombinant enzyme in HEK-293 cells
succinic semialdehyde + D-2-hydroxyglutarate
-
-
?
Organism
Organism
UniProt
Commentary
Textmining
Homo sapiens
-
-
-
Mus musculus
-
-
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
-
Purification (Commentary)
Purification (Commentary)
Organism
1300fold, partial from liver; native enzyme from liver 1300fold by precipitation using PEG 6000, anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and gel filtration
Rattus norvegicus
Source Tissue
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
brain
low enzyme activity
Rattus norvegicus
-
heart
highest activity in liver and kidney and an intermediate activity in heart; low enzyme activity
Rattus norvegicus
-
HEK-293 cell
mouse homologue expressed in
Homo sapiens
-
kidney
; highest activity in liver and kidney and an intermediate activity in heart
Rattus norvegicus
-
liver
; highest activity in liver and kidney and an intermediate activity in heart
Rattus norvegicus
-
lung
very low enzyme activity
Rattus norvegicus
-
additional information
no activity in brain and skeletal muscle; tissue distribution, overview
Rattus norvegicus
-
skeletal muscle
low enzyme activity
Rattus norvegicus
-
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Minimum [µmol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Maximum [µmol/min/mg]
Commentary
Organism
0.0013
-
recombinant soluble enzyme in HEK-293 cells
Mus musculus
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
Substrate Product ID
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
-
664967
Homo sapiens
D-2-hydroxyglutarate + succinate semialdehyde
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
-
664967
Rattus norvegicus
D-2-hydroxyglutarate + succinate semialdehyde
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
-
664967
Mus musculus
succinic semialdehyde + D-2-hydroxyglutarate
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
-
664967
Rattus norvegicus
succinic semialdehyde + D-2-hydroxyglutarate
-
-
-
r
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
recombinant enzyme in HEK-293 cells
664967
Mus musculus
succinic semialdehyde + D-2-hydroxyglutarate
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
stereospecific reaction, no activity with L-2-hydroxyglutarate
664967
Rattus norvegicus
succinic semialdehyde + D-2-hydroxyglutarate
-
-
-
r
Subunits
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
monomer
1 * 50000, about, SDS-PAGE
Rattus norvegicus
Synonyms
Synonyms
Commentary
Organism
HOT
-
Mus musculus
HOT
-
Rattus norvegicus
HOT
-
Homo sapiens
transhydrogenase, hydroxy acid-oxo acid
-
Homo sapiens
transhydrogenase, hydroxy acid-oxo acid
-
Rattus norvegicus
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Optimum Maximum [°C]
Commentary
Organism
30
-
assay at
Mus musculus
30
-
assay at
Rattus norvegicus
pH Optimum
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
7.1
-
assay at
Mus musculus
7.1
-
; assay at
Rattus norvegicus
Cofactor
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
enzymatic activity is unaffected by NAD+ or NADP+ up to 1 mM
Homo sapiens
additional information
enzymatic activity is unaffected by NAD+ or NADP+ up to 1 mM; no requirement for NAD+ or NADP+
Rattus norvegicus
Ki Value [mM]
Ki Value [mM]
Ki Value maximum [mM]
Inhibitor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
0.075
-
cyanide
30°C, pH 7.1
Rattus norvegicus
0.75
-
1,10-phenanthroline
30°C, pH 7.1
Rattus norvegicus
IC50 Value
IC50 Value
IC50 Value Maximum
Commentary
Organism
Inhibitor
Structure
0.075
-
IC50: 0.075 mM
Rattus norvegicus
cyanide
0.75
-
IC50: 0.75 mM
Rattus norvegicus
1,10-phenanthroline
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Activating Compound
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
no effect by EDTA and EGTA
Rattus norvegicus
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression in HEK-293 cells as soluble protein
Mus musculus
Cofactor (protein specific)
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
enzymatic activity is unaffected by NAD+ or NADP+ up to 1 mM
Homo sapiens
additional information
enzymatic activity is unaffected by NAD+ or NADP+ up to 1 mM; no requirement for NAD+ or NADP+
Rattus norvegicus
IC50 Value (protein specific)
IC50 Value
IC50 Value Maximum
Commentary
Organism
Inhibitor
Structure
0.075
-
IC50: 0.075 mM
Rattus norvegicus
cyanide
0.75
-
IC50: 0.75 mM
Rattus norvegicus
1,10-phenanthroline
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
1,10-phenanthroline
; IC50: 0.75 mM
Rattus norvegicus
cyanide
; IC50: 0.075 mM
Rattus norvegicus
additional information
no effect by EDTA and EGTA; no inhibition with EDTA, EGTA
Rattus norvegicus
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM]
Ki Value maximum [mM]
Inhibitor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
0.075
-
cyanide
30°C, pH 7.1
Rattus norvegicus
0.75
-
1,10-phenanthroline
30°C, pH 7.1
Rattus norvegicus
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
-
additional information
no activity with L-isomer of 2-hydroxybutyrate, Km for succinate semialdehyde is below 0.01 mM, 30°C, pH 7.1
Rattus norvegicus
0.01
-
Succinic semialdehyde
below, pH 7.1, 30°C
Rattus norvegicus
0.06
-
4-hydroxybutyrate
+/- 0.006 mM, 30°C, pH 7.1; pH 7.1, 30°C
Rattus norvegicus
0.067
-
4-hydroxybutyrate
+/-0.012 mM, in overepressed HEK cells, in presence of 0.5 mM 2-oxoglutarate
Homo sapiens
0.067
-
4-hydroxybutyrate
pH 7.1, 30°C, recombinant enzyme
Mus musculus
0.077
-
2-oxoglutarate
+/-0.009 mM, in overexpressed HEK cells, in presence of 0.1 mM 4-hydroxybutyrate
Homo sapiens
0.077
-
2-oxoglutarate
pH 7.1, 30°C, recombinant enzyme
Mus musculus
0.085
-
2-oxoglutarate
+/-0.007 mM, 30°C, pH 7.1; pH 7.1, 30°C
Rattus norvegicus
4.5
-
D-2-hydroxybutyrate
no activity with L-isomer, 30°C, pH 7.1
Rattus norvegicus
4.5
-
D-2-hydroxyglutarate
pH 7.1, 30°C
Rattus norvegicus
Localization (protein specific)
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
mitochondrion
-
Rattus norvegicus
5739
-
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Metals/Ions
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
bi or trivalent, no stimulation with 0.01-0.05 mM Fe2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Mg2+ or Ca2+; not affected by 0.5 mM Fe2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, and Zn2+, or 1 mM Mg2+ and Ca2+
Rattus norvegicus
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
45000
50000
-
Rattus norvegicus
45000
55000
gel filtration
Rattus norvegicus
50000
-
1 * 50000, about, SDS-PAGE
Rattus norvegicus
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
ID
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
Homo sapiens
-
D-2-hydroxyglutarate + succinate semialdehyde
-
-
?
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
Rattus norvegicus
-
D-2-hydroxyglutarate + succinate semialdehyde
-
-
?
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
Rattus norvegicus
-
succinic semialdehyde + D-2-hydroxyglutarate
-
-
r
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
Mus musculus
recombinant enzyme in HEK-293 cells
succinic semialdehyde + D-2-hydroxyglutarate
-
-
?
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
1300fold, partial from liver; native enzyme from liver 1300fold by precipitation using PEG 6000, anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and gel filtration
Rattus norvegicus
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
brain
low enzyme activity
Rattus norvegicus
-
heart
highest activity in liver and kidney and an intermediate activity in heart; low enzyme activity
Rattus norvegicus
-
HEK-293 cell
mouse homologue expressed in
Homo sapiens
-
kidney
; highest activity in liver and kidney and an intermediate activity in heart
Rattus norvegicus
-
liver
; highest activity in liver and kidney and an intermediate activity in heart
Rattus norvegicus
-
lung
very low enzyme activity
Rattus norvegicus
-
additional information
no activity in brain and skeletal muscle; tissue distribution, overview
Rattus norvegicus
-
skeletal muscle
low enzyme activity
Rattus norvegicus
-
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Specific Activity Minimum [µmol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Maximum [µmol/min/mg]
Commentary
Organism
0.0013
-
recombinant soluble enzyme in HEK-293 cells
Mus musculus
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
ID
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
-
664967
Homo sapiens
D-2-hydroxyglutarate + succinate semialdehyde
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
-
664967
Rattus norvegicus
D-2-hydroxyglutarate + succinate semialdehyde
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
-
664967
Mus musculus
succinic semialdehyde + D-2-hydroxyglutarate
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
-
664967
Rattus norvegicus
succinic semialdehyde + D-2-hydroxyglutarate
-
-
-
r
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
recombinant enzyme in HEK-293 cells
664967
Mus musculus
succinic semialdehyde + D-2-hydroxyglutarate
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxybutyrate + 2-oxoglutarate
stereospecific reaction, no activity with L-2-hydroxyglutarate
664967
Rattus norvegicus
succinic semialdehyde + D-2-hydroxyglutarate
-
-
-
r
Subunits (protein specific)
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
monomer
1 * 50000, about, SDS-PAGE
Rattus norvegicus
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Optimum Maximum [°C]
Commentary
Organism
30
-
assay at
Mus musculus
30
-
assay at
Rattus norvegicus
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
7.1
-
assay at
Mus musculus
7.1
-
; assay at
Rattus norvegicus
Other publictions for EC 1.1.99.24
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Synonyms
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Range [°C]
Temperature Stability [°C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [°C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
741433
Yang
RNA interference-mediated knoc ...
Bemisia tabaci
Sci. Rep.
7
41201
2017
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
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-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
1
-
-
-
741263
Gaona-Lopez
Diversity and evolutionary ana ...
Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba castellanii NEFF, Acytostelium subglobosum, Acytostelium subglobosum LB1, Aphanomyces astaci, Aphanomyces astaci APO3, Aphanomyces invadans, Aphanomyces invadans NJM9701, Capsaspora owczarzaki, Capsaspora owczarzaki ATCC 30864, Dictyostelium discoideum, Dictyostelium purpureum, Heterostelium pallidum, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Phaeodactylum tricornutum CCAP 1055/1, Reticulomyxa filosa, Saprolegnia diclina, Saprolegnia diclina VS20, Saprolegnia parasitica, Saprolegnia parasitica CBS223.65, Thalassiosira oceanica, Thecamonas trahens, Thecamonas trahens ATCC 50062, Tieghemostelium lacteum
PLoS ONE
11
e0166851
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14
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34
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14
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15
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14
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14
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
697277
Lyon
Enzymes involved in the metabo ...
Homo sapiens
Chem. Biol. Interact.
178
283-287
2009
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
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-
1
-
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1
-
2
-
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1
-
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-
-
1
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
664967
Kardon
Identification of the gene enc ...
Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus
FEBS Lett.
580
2347-2350
2006
1
-
1
-
-
-
3
10
1
1
3
4
-
6
-
-
1
-
-
9
1
-
6
1
5
2
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
2
-
2
1
-
1
2
-
-
-
2
3
2
10
1
1
3
4
-
-
-
1
-
9
1
-
6
1
2
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
675230
Struys
Kinetic characterization of hu ...
Homo sapiens
J. Inherit. Metab. Dis.
28
921-930
2005
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
-
3
-
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
-
3
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
286147
Kaufman
An overview of gamma-hydroxybu ...
Rattus norvegicus
Neurochem. Res.
16
965-974
1991
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
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1
-
4
-
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5
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-
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-
1
-
4
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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287797
Kaufman
Isolation and characterization ...
Rattus norvegicus, Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
J. Biol. Chem.
263
16872-16879
1988
-
-
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1
1
5
2
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164
-
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1
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-
4
1
-
10
-
-
1
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1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
-
5
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
4
1
-
10
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-