BRENDA - Enzyme Database
show all sequences of 1.2.1.13

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is regulated by ferredoxin-NADP reductase in the diatom Asterionella formosa

Mekhalfi, M.; Puppo, C.; Avilan, L.; Lebrun, R.; Mansuelle, P.; Maberly, S.C.; Gontero, B.; New Phytol. 203, 414-423 (2014)

Data extracted from this reference:

Activating Compound
Activating Compound
Commentary
Organism
Structure
DTT
activates
Asterionella formosa
NADP+
activates
Asterionella formosa
Cloned(Commentary)
Cloned (Commentary)
Organism
phylogenetic analysis
Asterionella formosa
Inhibitors
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
the activity of the GAPDH-CP12 complex is not affected by addition of bovine serum albumin, Rubisco, EC 4.1.1.39, or phosphoribulokinase, PRK EC 2.7.1.19. Incubation of GAPDH alone with NADPH, DTT or NADP has no effect on its activity
Asterionella formosa
NADPH
NADPH can inhibit GAPDH in complex with chloroplast protein CP12 in the presence of NADP+ reductase ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, FNR, EC 1.18.1.1, because FNR is inhibited by NADPH. NADPH can also directly inhibit GAPDH. In crude extracts, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase can be inhibited by NADPH under oxidizing conditions. DTT reactivates the enzyme. The addition of commercial FNR from Spinacia oleracea inhibits GAPDH activity by 40% under oxidizing conditions when NADPH is present, and the effect is abolished by the addition of DTT
Asterionella formosa
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
150000
-
GAPDH, gel filtration
Asterionella formosa
299000
-
GAPDH–CP12–FNR complex, gel filtration
Asterionella formosa
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
ID
D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + phosphate + NADP+
Asterionella formosa
-
3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate + NADPH + H+
-
-
?
additional information
Asterionella formosa
the enzyme interacts with small chloroplast protein CP12, and a strong interaction between GAPDH-CP12 and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, FNR EC 1.18.1.1, with a very low dissociation constant is observed, protein complex interaction kinetics, overview. The GAPDH-CP12-FNR complex is disrupted with NADP+
?
-
-
-
Organism
Organism
UniProt
Commentary
Textmining
Asterionella formosa
-
-
-
Purification (Commentary)
Purification (Commentary)
Organism
the GAPDH–CP12–FNR complex is purified using ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration, followed by complex dissociation with 20 mM DTT for 20 min at 30°C, and gel filtration to about 86% purity, all steps in presence of NADPH
Asterionella formosa
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
Substrate Product ID
D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + phosphate + NADP+
-
743366
Asterionella formosa
3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate + NADPH + H+
-
-
-
?
additional information
the enzyme interacts with small chloroplast protein CP12, and a strong interaction between GAPDH-CP12 and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, FNR EC 1.18.1.1, with a very low dissociation constant is observed, protein complex interaction kinetics, overview. The GAPDH-CP12-FNR complex is disrupted with NADP+
743366
Asterionella formosa
?
-
-
-
-
Subunits
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
homotetramer
4 * 36700, about, mass spectrometry, 4 * 47000, SDS-PAGE
Asterionella formosa
Synonyms
Synonyms
Commentary
Organism
GAPDH
-
Asterionella formosa
Cofactor
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
NADPH
-
Asterionella formosa
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Activating Compound
Commentary
Organism
Structure
DTT
activates
Asterionella formosa
NADP+
activates
Asterionella formosa
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
phylogenetic analysis
Asterionella formosa
Cofactor (protein specific)
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
NADPH
-
Asterionella formosa
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
the activity of the GAPDH-CP12 complex is not affected by addition of bovine serum albumin, Rubisco, EC 4.1.1.39, or phosphoribulokinase, PRK EC 2.7.1.19. Incubation of GAPDH alone with NADPH, DTT or NADP has no effect on its activity
Asterionella formosa
NADPH
NADPH can inhibit GAPDH in complex with chloroplast protein CP12 in the presence of NADP+ reductase ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, FNR, EC 1.18.1.1, because FNR is inhibited by NADPH. NADPH can also directly inhibit GAPDH. In crude extracts, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase can be inhibited by NADPH under oxidizing conditions. DTT reactivates the enzyme. The addition of commercial FNR from Spinacia oleracea inhibits GAPDH activity by 40% under oxidizing conditions when NADPH is present, and the effect is abolished by the addition of DTT
Asterionella formosa
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
150000
-
GAPDH, gel filtration
Asterionella formosa
299000
-
GAPDH–CP12–FNR complex, gel filtration
Asterionella formosa
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
ID
D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + phosphate + NADP+
Asterionella formosa
-
3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate + NADPH + H+
-
-
?
additional information
Asterionella formosa
the enzyme interacts with small chloroplast protein CP12, and a strong interaction between GAPDH-CP12 and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, FNR EC 1.18.1.1, with a very low dissociation constant is observed, protein complex interaction kinetics, overview. The GAPDH-CP12-FNR complex is disrupted with NADP+
?
-
-
-
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
the GAPDH–CP12–FNR complex is purified using ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration, followed by complex dissociation with 20 mM DTT for 20 min at 30°C, and gel filtration to about 86% purity, all steps in presence of NADPH
Asterionella formosa
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
ID
D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + phosphate + NADP+
-
743366
Asterionella formosa
3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate + NADPH + H+
-
-
-
?
additional information
the enzyme interacts with small chloroplast protein CP12, and a strong interaction between GAPDH-CP12 and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, FNR EC 1.18.1.1, with a very low dissociation constant is observed, protein complex interaction kinetics, overview. The GAPDH-CP12-FNR complex is disrupted with NADP+
743366
Asterionella formosa
?
-
-
-
-
Subunits (protein specific)
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
homotetramer
4 * 36700, about, mass spectrometry, 4 * 47000, SDS-PAGE
Asterionella formosa
Expression
Organism
Commentary
Expression
Asterionella formosa
downregulation of GAPDH in the dark
down
General Information
General Information
Commentary
Organism
metabolism
Diatom plastids lack of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and so cannot produce NADPH in the dark. The observed downregulation of GAPDH in the dark may allow NADPH to be rerouted towards other reductive processes contributing to their ecological success
Asterionella formosa
physiological function
GAPDH has a strategic position within cell metabolism because GAP is an intermediate in many metabolic pathways, and therefore GAPDH needs to be highly regulated. In cyanobacteria, green and red algae and higher plants, GAPDH and phosphoribulokinase (PRK, EC 2.7.1.19) are downregulated by forming a ternary complex with CP12. Regulation of the key Calvin cycle enzymes of diatom algae differs from that of the Plantae. Enzyme GAPDH interacts with ferredoxin-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) reductase (FNR) from the primary phase of photosynthesis, and the small chloroplast protein, CP12
Asterionella formosa
General Information (protein specific)
General Information
Commentary
Organism
metabolism
Diatom plastids lack of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and so cannot produce NADPH in the dark. The observed downregulation of GAPDH in the dark may allow NADPH to be rerouted towards other reductive processes contributing to their ecological success
Asterionella formosa
physiological function
GAPDH has a strategic position within cell metabolism because GAP is an intermediate in many metabolic pathways, and therefore GAPDH needs to be highly regulated. In cyanobacteria, green and red algae and higher plants, GAPDH and phosphoribulokinase (PRK, EC 2.7.1.19) are downregulated by forming a ternary complex with CP12. Regulation of the key Calvin cycle enzymes of diatom algae differs from that of the Plantae. Enzyme GAPDH interacts with ferredoxin-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) reductase (FNR) from the primary phase of photosynthesis, and the small chloroplast protein, CP12
Asterionella formosa
Expression (protein specific)
Organism
Commentary
Expression
Asterionella formosa
downregulation of GAPDH in the dark
down
Other publictions for EC 1.2.1.13
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Synonyms
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Range [°C]
Temperature Stability [°C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [°C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
743366
Mekhalfi
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate de ...
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New Phytol.
203
414-423
2014
2
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1
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2
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2
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1
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1
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1
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721392
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1
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4
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1
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1
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1
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1
1
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724980
Kouril
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FEBS J.
280
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2013
-
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1
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5
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1
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2
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1
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5
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2
1
1
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1
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1
1
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743027
Wang
Improvement of NADPH bioavail ...
Bacillus subtilis 168, Bacillus subtilis
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1449-1460
2013
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1
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725013
Ito
Comparative analysis of two gl ...
Sulfurisphaera tokodaii
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586
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2012
1
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1
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6
8
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3
3
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4
-
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1
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3
1
2
1
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1
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3
7
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1
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1
3
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6
7
8
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3
3
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1
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3
1
1
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1
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2
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2
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712646
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38
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1
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724306
Erales
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Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
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50
2881-2888
2011
-
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1
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4
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1
8
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1
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3
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1
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2
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2
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9
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2
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1
2
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4
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1
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8
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1
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1
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2
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9
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-
-
-
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726000
Matsubara
Biochemical and genetic charac ...
Thermococcus kodakarensis
Mol. Microbiol.
81
1300-1312
2011
-
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1
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4
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2
2
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724415
Matta
Surface localized and extracel ...
Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus anthracis Sterne
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
1804
2111-2120
2010
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685362
Hald
Feedback regulation of photosy ...
Nicotiana tabacum
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
1777
433-440
2008
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1
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688696
Negi
Co-localization of glyceraldeh ...
Pisum sativum, Spinacia oleracea
J. Struct. Biol.
161
18-30
2008
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695353
Elliott
Expression, purification, crys ...
Helicobacter pylori
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F
64
723-726
2008
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1
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676125
Min
Forward chemical genetic appro ...
Caenorhabditis elegans, Oryctolagus cuniculus
Nat. Chem. Biol.
3
55-59
2007
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2
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685291
Bolychevtseva
Effects of oxygen and photosyn ...
Arthrospira platensis, Arthrospira platensis P511
Biochemistry
72
275-281
2007
1
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1
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689485
Oesterhelt
Redox regulation of chloroplas ...
Galdieria sulphuraria
Plant Cell Physiol.
48
1359-1373
2007
1
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1
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7
-
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1
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1
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3
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1
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689747
Fermani
Molecular mechanism of thiored ...
Spinacia oleracea
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
104
11109-11114
2007
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1
1
4
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1
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4
1
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1
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1
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2
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671163
Camara-Artigas
Crystallization and structural ...
Spinacia oleracea
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F
62
1087-1092
2006
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1
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287991
Ferri
Chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3-p ...
Spinacia oleracea
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
1041
36-42
1990
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287992
Levy
Stereospecificity of C4 nicoti ...
Spinacia oleracea
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
997
331-333
1989
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287994
Gowri
cDNA clones for corn leaf NADH ...
Zea mays
Plant Physiol.
90
792-798
1989
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-
1
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287993
Fabry
Expression of the glyceraldehy ...
Methanothermus fervidus
FEBS Lett.
237
213-217
1988
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1
1
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11539
Fabry
Purification and characterizat ...
Methanothermus fervidus
Eur. J. Biochem.
165
147-155
1987
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1
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6
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1
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3
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287995
Hensel
Characterization of two D-glyc ...
Thermoproteus tenax
Eur. J. Biochem.
170
325-333
1987
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1
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3
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2
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2
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2
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287996
Ferri
-
Structural characterization of ...
Spinacia oleracea
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
915
149-156
1987
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1
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287997
Croxdale
Activity of glyceraldehyde-3-p ...
Dianthus chinensis
Plant Physiol.
84
1427-1430
1987
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288003
Maciozek
-
Changing kinetic properties of ...
Pisum sativum
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
892
185-190
1987
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1
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287923
Martin
Prokaryotic features of a nucl ...
Sinapis alba
Eur. J. Biochem.
159
323-331
1986
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1
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288000
Iadarola
-
Reversed-phase high-performanc ...
Spinacia oleracea
J. Chromatogr.
359
423-432
1986
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1
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2
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2
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288001
Wolosiuk
Activation of spinach chloropl ...
Spinacia oleracea
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
246
1-8
1986
3
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1
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288004
Wolosiuk
-
Dual effects of organic solven ...
Spinacia oleracea
FEBS Lett.
189
212-216
1985
1
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2
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288005
Ravid
The presence of NADPH-glyceral ...
Mus musculus
FEBS Lett.
162
107-111
1983
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-
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1
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-
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-
288006
Iadarola
-
Molecular forms of chloroplast ...
Spinacia oleracea
Experientia
39
50-52
1983
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-
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1
1
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5
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1
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1
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1
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3
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2
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1
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5
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1
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1
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3
-
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-
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-
-
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-
-
-
-
288007
Zapponi
-
Spinach chloroplast glyceralde ...
Spinacia oleracea
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
744
260-264
1983
-
-
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1
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-
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-
-
-
-
288008
Udvardy
-
Modulation of glyceraldehyde-3 ...
Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 = FACHB-805
Arch. Microbiol.
133
2-5
1982
3
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1
1
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1
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1
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1
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-
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-
288009
Mve Akamba
Light modulation of glyceralde ...
Pisum sativum
Plant Physiol.
67
197-200
1981
1
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3
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3
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3
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3
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-
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-
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-
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-
-
-
-
288010
Wara-Aswapati
Activation of glyceraldehyde-p ...
Phaseolus vulgaris
Plant Physiol.
66
34-39
1980
5
-
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1
-
1
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2
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1
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1
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5
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1
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1
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1
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1
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
288011
Horrum
Nutritional regulation of orga ...
Euglena gracilis
Plant Physiol.
65
382-386
1980
-
-
-
-
-
-
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1
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1
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2
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288012
Woodrow
-
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate deh ...
Tetradesmus obliquus
Arch. Microbiol.
120
177-180
1979
2
-
-
-
-
-
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1
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1
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1
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-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288015
Cerff
Quaternary structure of higher ...
Hordeum vulgare, Pisum sativum, Spinacia oleracea
Eur. J. Biochem.
94
243-247
1979
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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6
-
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9
-
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3
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-
3
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3
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3
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3
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6
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3
-
3
-
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-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288016
Woodrow
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate deh ...
Tetradesmus obliquus
Eur. J. Biochem.
98
425-430
1979
1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288018
Cerff
Subunit structure of higher pl ...
Hordeum vulgare, Sinapis alba
J. Biol. Chem.
254
6094-6098
1979
-
-
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-
-
-
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4
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6
-
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4
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2
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2
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4
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-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288017
Lonergan
Regulation of the photosynthes ...
Euglena gracilis
Plant Physiol.
61
150-153
1978
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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1
-
1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288019
Cerff
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate deh ...
Sinapis alba
Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem.
359
769-772
1978
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
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1
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1
1
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1
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-
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1
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-
-
1
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288020
Huber
-
Substrates and inorganic phosp ...
Hordeum vulgare
FEBS Lett.
92
12-16
1978
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
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-
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1
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-
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1
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1
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1
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1
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-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288021
Wolosiuk
Activation of chloroplast NADP ...
Spinacia oleracea
Plant Physiol.
61
669-671
1978
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
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2
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1
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1
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1
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2
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1
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1
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1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288022
Ferri
Subunit structure and activity ...
Spinacia oleracea
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
522
19-31
1978
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
2
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
1
2
1
-
-
-
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-
1
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1
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1
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-
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-
1
-
1
1
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2
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
1
2
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288023
Cerff
-
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate deh ...
Sinapis alba
Phytochemistry
17
2061-2067
1978
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
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-
1
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-
-
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288028
Cerff
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate deh ...
Sinapis alba
Plant Physiol.
61
369-372
1978
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2
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2
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288029
Buchanan
-
Ferredoxin/thioredoxin system ...
Hordeum vulgare
Plant Sci. Lett.
12
257-264
1978
3
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288014
O'Brien
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate deh ...
Tetradesmus obliquus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
481
348-358
1977
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288024
Zeikus
Oxidoreductases involved in ce ...
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus
J. Bacteriol.
132
604-613
1977
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6
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1
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6
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3
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1
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1
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288013
O'Brien
Algal glyceraldehyde-3-phospha ...
Auxenochlorella pyrenoidosa, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Euglena gracilis, no activity in Rhodopseudomonas capsulata, Porphyridium purpureum, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 = FACHB-805, Tetradesmus obliquus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
449
209-223
1976
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7
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2
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7
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7
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2
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288025
Ziegler
-
Action of sulphite on the subs ...
Spinacia oleracea
Phytochemistry
15
1627-1632
1976
1
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1
1
1
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288034
Wolosiuk
Studies on the regulation of c ...
Spinacia oleracea
J. Biol. Chem.
251
6456-6461
1976
3
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287973
Grissom
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate deh ...
Euglena gracilis
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
171
444-458
1975
1
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288035
Theiss-Seuberling
-
Tagesablauf der NADP-abhaengig ...
Ankistrodesmus braunii
Arch. Microbiol.
104
139-146
1975
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1
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1
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288027
Yonuschot
Purification and properties of ...
Spinacia oleracea
J. Biol. Chem.
245
4193-4198
1970
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288036
Gibbs
-
TPN triosephosphate dehydrogen ...
Pisum sativum
Methods Enzymol.
1
411-415
1955
2
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2
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