BRENDA - Enzyme Database show
show all sequences of 1.3.7.12

Chlorophyll degradation during senescence

Hoertensteiner, S.; Annu. Plant Biol. 57, 55-77 (2006)

Data extracted from this reference:

Cloned(Commentary)
Commentary
Organism
recombinant expression of chimeric enzyme mutants in Escherichia coli
Arabidopsis thaliana
Engineering
Amino acid exchange
Commentary
Organism
additional information
construction of chimeric enzymes composed of portions of the Arabidopsis and the tomato proteins and expression in Escherichia coli, functional complementation of Arabidopsis acd2-2 mutant
Arabidopsis thaliana
Localization
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
chloroplast
soluble protein
Arabidopsis thaliana
9507
-
additional information
in young Arabidopsis seedlings, the enzyme is also associated with mitochondria
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
-
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
31000
-
x * 35000, precursor enzyme, SDS-PAGE, x * 31000, mature enzyme, SDS-PAGE
Arabidopsis thaliana
35000
-
x * 35000, precursor enzyme, SDS-PAGE, x * 31000, mature enzyme, SDS-PAGE
Arabidopsis thaliana
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
red chlorophyll catabolite + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
primary fluorescent chlorophyll catabolite + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster
-
-
?
Organism
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
Arabidopsis thaliana
Q8LDU4
gene RCCR or ACD2
-
Source Tissue
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
leaf
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
seedling
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
red chlorophyll catabolite + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+
-
735438
Arabidopsis thaliana
primary fluorescent chlorophyll catabolite + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster
-
-
-
?
red chlorophyll catabolite + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+
reduction of the C20/C1 double bond of red chlorophyll catabolite is catalyzed by RCCR in a stereospecific manner forming the C1 isomer pFCC-1
735438
Arabidopsis thaliana
primary fluorescent chlorophyll catabolite + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster
-
-
-
?
Subunits
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
?
x * 35000, precursor enzyme, SDS-PAGE, x * 31000, mature enzyme, SDS-PAGE
Arabidopsis thaliana
Cofactor
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
Ferredoxin
ferredoxin dependent, but appears to lack a metal or flavin cofactor, indicating that electrons are directly transferred from ferredoxin to red chlorophyll catabolite, RCC
Arabidopsis thaliana
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
recombinant expression of chimeric enzyme mutants in Escherichia coli
Arabidopsis thaliana
Cofactor (protein specific)
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
Ferredoxin
ferredoxin dependent, but appears to lack a metal or flavin cofactor, indicating that electrons are directly transferred from ferredoxin to red chlorophyll catabolite, RCC
Arabidopsis thaliana
Engineering (protein specific)
Amino acid exchange
Commentary
Organism
additional information
construction of chimeric enzymes composed of portions of the Arabidopsis and the tomato proteins and expression in Escherichia coli, functional complementation of Arabidopsis acd2-2 mutant
Arabidopsis thaliana
Localization (protein specific)
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
chloroplast
soluble protein
Arabidopsis thaliana
9507
-
additional information
in young Arabidopsis seedlings, the enzyme is also associated with mitochondria
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
-
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
31000
-
x * 35000, precursor enzyme, SDS-PAGE, x * 31000, mature enzyme, SDS-PAGE
Arabidopsis thaliana
35000
-
x * 35000, precursor enzyme, SDS-PAGE, x * 31000, mature enzyme, SDS-PAGE
Arabidopsis thaliana
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
red chlorophyll catabolite + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
primary fluorescent chlorophyll catabolite + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster
-
-
?
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
leaf
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
seedling
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
red chlorophyll catabolite + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+
-
735438
Arabidopsis thaliana
primary fluorescent chlorophyll catabolite + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster
-
-
-
?
red chlorophyll catabolite + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+
reduction of the C20/C1 double bond of red chlorophyll catabolite is catalyzed by RCCR in a stereospecific manner forming the C1 isomer pFCC-1
735438
Arabidopsis thaliana
primary fluorescent chlorophyll catabolite + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster
-
-
-
?
Subunits (protein specific)
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
?
x * 35000, precursor enzyme, SDS-PAGE, x * 31000, mature enzyme, SDS-PAGE
Arabidopsis thaliana
General Information
General Information
Commentary
Organism
evolution
RCCR is distantly related to a family of bilin reductases
Arabidopsis thaliana
malfunction
mutants defective in pheophorbide a oxygenase or red chlorophyll catabolite reductase, e.g. acd2 mutants that exhibit a light-dependent cell death phenotype with spontaneous spreading lesions, the mutants develop a lesion mimic phenotype, due to accumulation of breakdown intermediates
Arabidopsis thaliana
metabolism
the three chl catabolic enzymes, chlorophyllase, pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO), and red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCCR) catalyze chlorophyll breakdown, which is very important for plant development and survival. Chlorophyll breakdown is a prerequisite to detoxify the potentially phototoxic pigment within the vacuoles in order to permit the remobilization of nitrogen from chlorophyll-binding proteins to proceed during senescence. Enzyme RCCR might be required to mediate an efficient interaction between red chlorophyll catabolite (still bound to PAO) and ferredoxin, thereby enabling a fast, regio-, and stereoselective reduction to primary fluorescent chlorophyll catabolite
Arabidopsis thaliana
General Information (protein specific)
General Information
Commentary
Organism
evolution
RCCR is distantly related to a family of bilin reductases
Arabidopsis thaliana
malfunction
mutants defective in pheophorbide a oxygenase or red chlorophyll catabolite reductase, e.g. acd2 mutants that exhibit a light-dependent cell death phenotype with spontaneous spreading lesions, the mutants develop a lesion mimic phenotype, due to accumulation of breakdown intermediates
Arabidopsis thaliana
metabolism
the three chl catabolic enzymes, chlorophyllase, pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO), and red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCCR) catalyze chlorophyll breakdown, which is very important for plant development and survival. Chlorophyll breakdown is a prerequisite to detoxify the potentially phototoxic pigment within the vacuoles in order to permit the remobilization of nitrogen from chlorophyll-binding proteins to proceed during senescence. Enzyme RCCR might be required to mediate an efficient interaction between red chlorophyll catabolite (still bound to PAO) and ferredoxin, thereby enabling a fast, regio-, and stereoselective reduction to primary fluorescent chlorophyll catabolite
Arabidopsis thaliana
Other publictions for EC 1.3.7.12
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Range [°C]
Temperature Stability [°C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [°C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
736190
Xiao
Cloning and expression analysi ...
Capsicum annuum
Genet. Mol. Res.
14
368-379
2015
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726323
Liu
Nitric oxide deficiency accele ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
PLoS ONE
8
e56345
2013
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726877
Sakuraba
7-Hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
430
32-37
2013
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726165
Sakuraba
STAY-GREEN and chlorophyll cat ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
Plant Cell
24
507-518
2012
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1
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736688
Zhang
Correlation of leaf senescence ...
Brassica rapa
J. Plant Physiol.
168
2081-2087
2011
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1
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712769
Sugishima
Crystal structures of the subs ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
J. Mol. Biol.
402
879-891
2010
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699585
Sugishima
Crystal structure of red chlor ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
J. Mol. Biol.
389
376-387
2009
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700695
Ougham
The control of chlorophyll cat ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
Plant Biol.
10 Suppl 1
4-14
2008
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676436
Pruzinska
In vivo participation of red c ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
Plant Cell
19
369-387
2007
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671354
Hörtensteiner
Chlorophyll degradation during ...
Arabidopsis sp., Hordeum vulgare, Solanum lycopersicum, Spinacia oleracea
Annu. Rev. Plant Biol.
57
55-77
2006
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735438
Hoertensteiner
Chlorophyll degradation during ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
Annu. Plant Biol.
57
55-77
2006
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676587
Pruzinska
Chlorophyll breakdown in senes ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
Plant Physiol.
139
52-63
2005
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736960
Roca
Analysis of the chlorophyll ca ...
Lolium temulentum
Phytochemistry
65
1231-1238
2004
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676913
Mach
The Arabidopsis-accelerated ce ...
Arabidopsis sp.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
98
771-776
2001
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676395
Hörtensteiner
-
Evolution of chlorophyll degra ...
Angiopteris, Auxenochlorella protothecoides, Carex, Cleome graveolens, Cycas sp., Equisetum sp., Euptelea, Ginkgo biloba, Hordeum vulgare, Metasequoia, Picea, Psilotum, Selaginella sp., Solanum lycopersicum, Spinacia oleracea, Taxus baccata, Taxus sp., Tropaeolum majus
Plant Biol.
2
63-67
2000
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27
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15
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676490
Wüthrich
Molecular cloning, functional ...
Arabidopsis thaliana, Hordeum vulgare
Plant J.
21
189-198
2000
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736215
Muehlecker
-
Breakdown of chlorophyll: A fl ...
Brassica napus, Capsicum annuum
Helv. Chim. Acta
83
278-286
2000
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8
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736949
Hoertensteiner
Chlorophyll breakdown in oilse ...
Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica napus
Photosyn. Res.
64
137-146
2000
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4
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735913
Hoertensteiner
Chlorophyll breakdown in highe ...
Auxenochlorella protothecoides, Brassica napus, Capsicum annuum, Festuca pratensis, Hordeum vulgare, Parachlorella kessleri, Phaseolus vulgaris
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
56
330-347
1999
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5
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14
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5
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7
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5
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16
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7
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7
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14
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5
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