Information on EC 1.1.1.108 - carnitine 3-dehydrogenase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.1.1.108
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
carnitine 3-dehydrogenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
carnitine + NAD+ = 3-dehydrocarnitine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
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redox reaction
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reduction
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
D-carnitine degradation II
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L-carnitine degradation II
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carnitine metabolism
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
carnitine:NAD+ 3-oxidoreductase
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CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9045-45-8
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
not in gram-positive bacteria
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(R)-(-)-3-hydroxy-4-(trimethylamino)butyrate + NAD+
3-oxo-4-(trimethylamino)butyrate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
(R)-3-hydroxy-4-trimethylaminobutyrate + NAD+
3-dehydrocarnitine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
(S)-3-hydroxy-4-trimethylaminobutyrate + NAD+
3-dehydrocarnitine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
3-dehydrocarnitine + NADH + H+
carnitine + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
3-hydroxy-2-butanone + NAD+
2,3-butandione + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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enzyme specific for D-carnitine
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?
carnitine + NAD+
3-dehydrocarnitine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
carnitine amide + NAD+
3-dehydrocarnitine amide + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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L-carnitine dehydrogenase, weak activity
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?
DL-4-amino-3-hydroxy-n-butyrate + NAD+
DL-4-amino-3-keto-n-butyrate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(R)-(-)-3-hydroxy-4-(trimethylamino)butyrate + NAD+
3-oxo-4-(trimethylamino)butyrate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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i.e. L-carnitine, first step in the oxidative degradation of L-carnitine to glycine betaine
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-
?
(R)-3-hydroxy-4-trimethylaminobutyrate + NAD+
3-dehydrocarnitine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Co2+
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, 5 mM, 31% increase in activity
Mg2+
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, 0.5 mM, 17% increase in activity, 1.0 mM 30% increase in activity, 5.0 mM, 35% increase in activity
Ni2+
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, 5 mM, 31% increase in activity
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3-deydrocarnitine
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competitive inhibition vs. L-carnitine
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate)
cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, higher than 5 mM, 10% of initial activity
choline
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, competitive inhibition
crotonobetaine
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, competitive inhibition
Cu+
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60-70% inhibition
DL-beta-hydroxybutyrate
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, competitive inhibition
DL-carnitine amide
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, competitive inhibition
EDTA
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, 20 mM, 25-70% inhibition
Fe2+
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, 1 mM, 25-70% inhibition
gamma-butyrobetaine
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, competitive inhibition
glycine betaine
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, competitive inhibition
Hydrazine hydrate
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30 mM, 70% inhibition
hydroxylamine
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1 mM, complete inhibition
L-carnitine
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, strong competitive inhibition
N-ethylmaleimide
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, 1 mM, 77% inactivation after 3 min
NADH
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competitive inhibition vs. NAD+
Ni2+
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strong inhibition
o-phenanthroline
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38% inhibition
p-chloromercuribenzoate
SDS
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, higher than 5 mM, 10% of initial activity
Sodium borate
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20 mM, 60% inhibition
trimethylamine
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L-carnitine dehydrogenase, strong inhibition
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.54 - 1.71
3-dehydrocarnitine
1 - 1.2
carnitine
3.1 - 5.5
D-carnitine
0.29 - 26
L-carnitine
0.018 - 0.25
NAD+
0.013 - 0.067
NADH
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.13
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, after DEAE-Sepharose FF chromatography of cell extracts
0.15
mutant lacking 168 C-terminal residues, pH 85, 30C
0.35
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L-carnitine dehydrogenase, after DEAE-Sepharose FF chromatography of cell extracts
1.2
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L-carnitine dehydrogenase activity in crude extracts
14.15
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase
14.5
mutant lacking 162 C-terminal residues, pH 85, 30C
16.75
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L-carnitine dehydrogenase
30.7
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase
200
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oxidation of L-carnitine
240
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reduction of 3-dehydrocarnitine at pH 7-7.5
600
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reduction of 3-dehydrocarnitine
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.5 - 6.5
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, reduction of D-carnitine
5.6 - 6.5
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L-carnitine dehydrogenase, oxidation of L-carnitine
6.5 - 7
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, reduction of 3-dehydrocarnitine
6.5 - 8
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reduction of 3-dehydrocarnitine
6.5
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reduction of 3-dehydrocarnitine
7
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reduction of 3-dehydrocarnitine
7 - 7.5
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reduction of 3-dehydrocarnitine
9 - 9.5
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, oxidation of D-carnitine
9
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oxidation of L-carnitine
9 - 9.5
9
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oxidation of L-carnitine
9.3
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, oxidation of D-carnitine
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
30
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activity declines rapidly above 35C
37
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase
45
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L-carnitine dehydrogenase
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
additional information
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L-carnitine can serve as sole source of energy, carbon, and nitrogen
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
51000
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gel filtration
60000
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gel filtration
74000
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gel filtration
86000
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gel filtration, D-carnitine dehydrogenase
88000
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gel filtration, D-carnitine dehydrogenase
110000
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gel filtration
114000
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gel filtration, L-carnitine dehydrogenase
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
?
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x * 35000, about, DNA sequence calculation
trimer
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
enzyme has a 180-residue extra sequence at its C-terminal region with similarities to thioesterase after its first 20 amino acids
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6 - 8
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, stable for 100 h at 4C
9589
6.5 - 9
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase
285735
7 - 8
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285739
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ammonium sulfate, DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex G-100, 5'-AMP Sepharose 4B, Sephadex G-100
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ammonium sulfate, Sephadex G-200, 5'-AMP-Sepharose 4B, gel filtration
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ammonium sulfate, Sephadex G-200, hydroxylapatite
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DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B
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DEAE-Sepharose FF, Blue-Sepharose, Superose 12HR, Fractogel TSK Butyl, L-carnitine dehydrogenase
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DEAE-Sepharose FF, TSK Butyl, Phenyl-Sepharose, Superose 12 HR, D-carnitine dehydrogenase
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DEAE-Toyopearl, ammonium sulfate, hydroxylapatite, Sephacryl S-200, hydroxylapatite
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DEAE-Toyopearl, ammonium sulfate, Sephadex G-75, 5'-AMP-Sepharose 4B, Mono Q, TSK-gel G3000 SW, D-carnitine dehydrogenase
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Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
the gene encoding the enzyme is localized in a conserved genome region
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
analysis
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fluorometric determination of carnitine in serum with immobilized carnitine dehydrogenase and diaphorase
diagnostics
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the L-carnitine oxidation step can be exploited for spectroscopic L-carnitine determination in biological fluids
synthesis
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