BRENDA - Enzyme Database show
show all sequences of 1.4.1.13

Glutamate synthase from Escherichia coli. An iron-sulfide flavoprotein

Miller, R.E.; Stadtman, E.R.; J. Biol. Chem. 247, 7407-7419 (1972)

Data extracted from this reference:

General Stability
General Stability
Organism
2-mercaptoethanol, stabilizes
Escherichia coli
alpha-ketoglutarate stabilizes
Escherichia coli
alpha-ketoglutarate, L-glutamine, L-glutamate and NADP when present together partial protect against enzyme inactivation
Escherichia coli
incubation with L-glutamine or L-glutamate results in marked time- and temperature-dependent loss in activity
Escherichia coli
NADP causes relatively small loss in activity compared with control values
Escherichia coli
Inhibitors
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
ADP
15% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
ATP
19% inhibition at 25 mM and 43% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
BaCl2
61% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
CaCl2
74% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
CdCl2
produces more than 60% inhibition at 5 mM
Escherichia coli
cis-aconitate
22% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
CoCl2
produces more than 60% inhibition at 5 mM
Escherichia coli
CTP
9% inhibition at 25 mM and 21% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
D-glutamate
50% inhibition at concentrations below 7 mM
Escherichia coli
D-methionine
19% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
fumarate
21% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
glycine
significant inhibitor
Escherichia coli
GTP
16% inhibition at 25 mM and 43% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
iodoacetamide
more than 50% loss in activity in 60 min at 0.5 mM
Escherichia coli
isocitrate
35% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
ITP
17% inhibition at 25 mM and 29% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
KBr
43% inhibition at 100 mM
Escherichia coli
KCl
32% inhibition at 100 mM
Escherichia coli
KNO3
47% inhibition at 100 mM
Escherichia coli
L-alanine
significant inhibitor
Escherichia coli
L-asparagine
significant inhibitor
Escherichia coli
L-aspartate
50% inhibition at concentrations below 7 mM
Escherichia coli
L-cysteine
significant inhibitor
Escherichia coli
L-glutamate
50% inhibition at concentrations between 17 and 35 mM
Escherichia coli
L-histidine
significant inhibitor
Escherichia coli
L-homoserine
significant inhibitor
Escherichia coli
L-malate
19% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
L-methionine
50% inhibition at concentrations below 7 mM
Escherichia coli
L-serine
significant inhibitor
Escherichia coli
MgCl2
70% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
MnCl2
82% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
NADP+
50% inhibition at concentrations below 7 mM
Escherichia coli
NiCl2
produces more than 60% inhibition at 5 mM
Escherichia coli
oxaloacetate
-
Escherichia coli
p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate
more than 50% loss in activity in 60 min at 0.05 mM
Escherichia coli
pyruvate
20% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
succinate
16% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
UTP
17% inhibition at 25 mM and 33% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
KM Value [mM]
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
0.0073
-
alpha-ketoglutarate
-
Escherichia coli
0.0077
-
NADPH
-
Escherichia coli
0.25
-
L-glutamine
-
Escherichia coli
Metals/Ions
Metals/Ions
Commentary
Organism
Structure
Iron
contains 38.4 mol of iron; iron-sulfur protein
Escherichia coli
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
53000
-
4 * 53000 + 4 * 135000, SDS-PAGE, urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
Escherichia coli
135000
-
4 * 53000 + 4 * 135000, SDS-PAGE, urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
Escherichia coli
800000
-
sedimentation equilibrium, gel filtration
Escherichia coli
Organism
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
Escherichia coli
-
-
-
Purification (Commentary)
Commentary
Organism
using streptomycin sulfate treatment, ammonium sulfate fractionation, heat treatment, agarose gel filtration and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography
Escherichia coli
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Minimum [µmol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Maximum [µmol/min/mg]
Commentary
Organism
26.2
-
-
Escherichia coli
Storage Stability
Storage Stability
Organism
-80°C, 20 mM potassium-HEPES, pH 7.2, 2 mM alpha-ketoglutarate, 1 mM EDTA, stable for at least 6 months
Escherichia coli
4°C, 20 mM potassium-HEPES, pH 7.2, 2 mM alpha-ketoglutarate, 1 mM EDTA, 5 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 20% loss of activity, after 1 month
Escherichia coli
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH + H+
highly specific
391438
Escherichia coli
L-glutamate + NADP+
-
391438
Escherichia coli
ir
L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH + H+
L-glutamine, 2-oxoglutarate and NADPH are all required for catalytic activity
391438
Escherichia coli
L-glutamate + NADP+
-
391438
Escherichia coli
ir
additional information
NH4Cl, L-asparagine, D-glutamine, or alkylated glutamine analogues do not substitute for L-glutamine, pyruvate or oxalacetate do not substitute for alpha-ketoglutarate
391438
Escherichia coli
?
-
-
-
-
Subunits
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
octamer
4 * 53000 + 4 * 135000, SDS-PAGE, urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
Escherichia coli
pH Optimum
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
7.6
-
-
Escherichia coli
pH Range
pH Minimum
pH Maximum
Commentary
Organism
6.4
9
at pH 6.4 and 9.0 about 50% of activity maximum
Escherichia coli
6.5
8.7
at pH 6.5 and 8.7 about 50% of activity maximum
Escherichia coli
Cofactor
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
flavin
contains FAD and FMN; enzyme contains 7.8 mol of flavin; flavoenzyme; ratio FAD: FMN is 1.2
Escherichia coli
additional information
purified enzyme contains 30.4 mol of labile sulfide per 800,000 g of protein
Escherichia coli
NADH
no activity with NADH
Escherichia coli
NADPH
-
Escherichia coli
Cofactor (protein specific)
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
flavin
contains FAD and FMN; enzyme contains 7.8 mol of flavin; flavoenzyme; ratio FAD: FMN is 1.2
Escherichia coli
additional information
purified enzyme contains 30.4 mol of labile sulfide per 800,000 g of protein
Escherichia coli
NADH
no activity with NADH
Escherichia coli
NADPH
-
Escherichia coli
General Stability (protein specific)
General Stability
Organism
2-mercaptoethanol, stabilizes
Escherichia coli
alpha-ketoglutarate stabilizes
Escherichia coli
alpha-ketoglutarate, L-glutamine, L-glutamate and NADP when present together partial protect against enzyme inactivation
Escherichia coli
incubation with L-glutamine or L-glutamate results in marked time- and temperature-dependent loss in activity
Escherichia coli
NADP causes relatively small loss in activity compared with control values
Escherichia coli
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
ADP
15% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
ATP
19% inhibition at 25 mM and 43% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
BaCl2
61% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
CaCl2
74% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
CdCl2
produces more than 60% inhibition at 5 mM
Escherichia coli
cis-aconitate
22% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
CoCl2
produces more than 60% inhibition at 5 mM
Escherichia coli
CTP
9% inhibition at 25 mM and 21% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
D-glutamate
50% inhibition at concentrations below 7 mM
Escherichia coli
D-methionine
19% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
fumarate
21% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
glycine
significant inhibitor
Escherichia coli
GTP
16% inhibition at 25 mM and 43% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
iodoacetamide
more than 50% loss in activity in 60 min at 0.5 mM
Escherichia coli
isocitrate
35% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
ITP
17% inhibition at 25 mM and 29% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
KBr
43% inhibition at 100 mM
Escherichia coli
KCl
32% inhibition at 100 mM
Escherichia coli
KNO3
47% inhibition at 100 mM
Escherichia coli
L-alanine
significant inhibitor
Escherichia coli
L-asparagine
significant inhibitor
Escherichia coli
L-aspartate
50% inhibition at concentrations below 7 mM
Escherichia coli
L-cysteine
significant inhibitor
Escherichia coli
L-glutamate
50% inhibition at concentrations between 17 and 35 mM
Escherichia coli
L-histidine
significant inhibitor
Escherichia coli
L-homoserine
significant inhibitor
Escherichia coli
L-malate
19% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
L-methionine
50% inhibition at concentrations below 7 mM
Escherichia coli
L-serine
significant inhibitor
Escherichia coli
MgCl2
70% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
MnCl2
82% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
NADP+
50% inhibition at concentrations below 7 mM
Escherichia coli
NiCl2
produces more than 60% inhibition at 5 mM
Escherichia coli
oxaloacetate
-
Escherichia coli
p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate
more than 50% loss in activity in 60 min at 0.05 mM
Escherichia coli
pyruvate
20% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
succinate
16% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
UTP
17% inhibition at 25 mM and 33% inhibition at 50 mM
Escherichia coli
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
0.0073
-
alpha-ketoglutarate
-
Escherichia coli
0.0077
-
NADPH
-
Escherichia coli
0.25
-
L-glutamine
-
Escherichia coli
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Metals/Ions
Commentary
Organism
Structure
Iron
contains 38.4 mol of iron; iron-sulfur protein
Escherichia coli
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
53000
-
4 * 53000 + 4 * 135000, SDS-PAGE, urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
Escherichia coli
135000
-
4 * 53000 + 4 * 135000, SDS-PAGE, urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
Escherichia coli
800000
-
sedimentation equilibrium, gel filtration
Escherichia coli
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
using streptomycin sulfate treatment, ammonium sulfate fractionation, heat treatment, agarose gel filtration and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography
Escherichia coli
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Specific Activity Minimum [µmol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Maximum [µmol/min/mg]
Commentary
Organism
26.2
-
-
Escherichia coli
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Storage Stability
Organism
-80°C, 20 mM potassium-HEPES, pH 7.2, 2 mM alpha-ketoglutarate, 1 mM EDTA, stable for at least 6 months
Escherichia coli
4°C, 20 mM potassium-HEPES, pH 7.2, 2 mM alpha-ketoglutarate, 1 mM EDTA, 5 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 20% loss of activity, after 1 month
Escherichia coli
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH + H+
highly specific
391438
Escherichia coli
L-glutamate + NADP+
-
391438
Escherichia coli
ir
L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH + H+
L-glutamine, 2-oxoglutarate and NADPH are all required for catalytic activity
391438
Escherichia coli
L-glutamate + NADP+
-
391438
Escherichia coli
ir
additional information
NH4Cl, L-asparagine, D-glutamine, or alkylated glutamine analogues do not substitute for L-glutamine, pyruvate or oxalacetate do not substitute for alpha-ketoglutarate
391438
Escherichia coli
?
-
-
-
-
Subunits (protein specific)
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
octamer
4 * 53000 + 4 * 135000, SDS-PAGE, urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
Escherichia coli
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
7.6
-
-
Escherichia coli
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Minimum
pH Maximum
Commentary
Organism
6.4
9
at pH 6.4 and 9.0 about 50% of activity maximum
Escherichia coli
6.5
8.7
at pH 6.5 and 8.7 about 50% of activity maximum
Escherichia coli
Other publictions for EC 1.4.1.13
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Range [°C]
Temperature Stability [°C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [°C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
725886
Dincturk
Expression and functional anal ...
Pyrococcus horikoshii
Microbiol. Res.
166
294-303
2011
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
3
4
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
1
2
1
2
4
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
3
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
2
2
1
4
4
2
-
-
-
-
2
4
-
-
-
745714
Dincturk
Expression and functional ana ...
Pyrococcus horikoshii, Pyrococcus horikoshii OT-3, Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3
Microbiol. Res.
166
294-303
2011
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
725401
Jeelani
Two atypical L-cysteine-regula ...
Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba histolytica HM1:IMSS cl 6
J. Biol. Chem.
285
26889-26899
2010
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
4
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
4
-
2
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
687801
Cottevieille
The subnanometer resolution st ...
Azospirillum brasilense
J. Biol. Chem.
283
8237-8249
2008
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
674303
Saum
Biochemical and molecular char ...
Halobacillus halophilus
J. Bacteriol.
188
6808-6815
2006
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
3
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
675329
Chung
Molecular cloning and characte ...
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium
J. Microbiol.
44
301-310
2006
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
654382
Agnelli
The unexpected structural role ...
Azospirillum brasilense
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
436
355-366
2005
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
676331
Suzuki
Glutamate synthase: structural ...
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Azospirillum brasilense, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes, Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, Methanococcus thermoautotrophicum, no activity in Arabidopsis thaliana, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pyrococcus sp., Pyrococcus sp. KOD1, Rhizobium etli, Rhodospirillum rubrum, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium
Photosyn. Res.
83
191-217
2005
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
27
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
15
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
676332
Vanoni
Structure-function studies on ...
Azospirillum brasilense
Photosyn. Res.
83
219-238
2005
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
654888
Stutz
GltX from Clostridium saccharo ...
Clostridium saccharobutylicum, Clostridium saccharobutylicum NCP262
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
1676
71-82
2004
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
657306
Coiro
Molecular dynamics simulation ...
Azospirillum brasilense
Protein Sci.
13
2979-2991
2004
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
656149
Petoukhov
Quaternary structure of Azospi ...
Azospirillum brasilense
J. Biol. Chem.
278
29933-29939
2003
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391469
Ravasio
Properties of the recombinant ...
Azospirillum brasilense
Biochemistry
41
8120-8133
2002
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
5
-
1
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391468
Ravasio
Determination of the Midpoint ...
Azospirillum brasilense
Biochemistry
40
5533-5541
2001
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391466
Morandi
Glutamate Synthase: Identifica ...
Azospirillum brasilense
Biochemistry
39
727-735
2000
-
-
1
-
1
-
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
5
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
1
-
-
3
5
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391467
Stabile
Functional properties of recom ...
Azospirillum brasilense
Eur. J. Biochem.
267
2720-2730
2000
-
-
1
-
-
-
7
-
-
1
2
-
-
5
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
8
-
-
-
-
1
3
-
-
-
-
7
8
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391465
Vanoni
The recombinant alpha subunit ...
Azospirillum brasilense
Biochemistry
37
1828-1838
1998
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
2
-
-
-
-
1
3
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391464
Jongsareejit
Gene cloning, sequencing and e ...
Pyrococcus sp.
Mol. Gen. Genet.
254
635-642
1997
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
2
1
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
2
1
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391463
Vanoni
Properties of the recombinant ...
Azospirillum brasilense
Eur. J. Biochem.
236
937-946
1996
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
6
-
1
-
-
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
-
-
1
3
-
-
-
-
1
4
6
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391444
Vanoni
Characterization of the flavin ...
Azospirillum brasilense
Biochemistry
31
4613-4623
1992
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391445
Vanoni
Mechanistic studies on Azospir ...
Azospirillum brasilense
Biochemistry
30
11478-11484
1991
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
4
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
2
4
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391462
Carlberg
Purification and partial chara ...
Rhodospirillum rubrum
Biochem. J.
279
151-154
1991
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
3
-
1
3
1
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
5
-
3
-
1
3
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391440
Mei
Purification and properties of ...
Amycolatopsis mediterranei
J. Bacteriol.
170
1940-1944
1988
-
-
-
-
-
2
14
3
-
1
3
-
-
2
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
1
2
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
2
-
14
-
3
-
1
3
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
1
1
2
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391458
Hua
-
Biochemical properties of glut ...
Bradyrhizobium sp.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
37
209-213
1986
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
3
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
3
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391459
Matsuoka
Glutamate synthase from Bacill ...
Bacillus subtilis
J. Biochem.
99
1087-1100
1986
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
12
-
1
3
-
-
2
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
9
-
12
-
1
3
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391446
Ratti
Purification and characterizat ...
Azospirillum brasilense
J. Bacteriol.
163
724-729
1985
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
3
-
1
3
-
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
7
-
3
-
1
3
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391460
Meister
Glutamate synthase from Escher ...
Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes
Methods Enzymol.
113
327-337
1985
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
4
-
-
2
-
-
5
-
-
1
-
-
-
4
1
6
1
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
2
-
4
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
4
1
6
1
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391461
Rachim
-
Glutamine synthetase and gluta ...
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Phytochemistry
24
2541-2548
1985
-
-
-
-
-
-
20
3
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
20
-
3
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391447
Sung
-
Properties of glutamate syntha ...
Brevibacterium flavum
J. Ferment. Technol.
62
569-575
1984
-
-
-
-
-
2
19
3
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
3
14
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
2
-
19
14
3
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391449
Schreier
Purification and properties of ...
Bacillus licheniformis
J. Bacteriol.
160
591-599
1984
-
-
-
-
-
-
15
1
-
1
3
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
15
1
1
-
1
3
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391448
Tachiki
-
Purification and some properti ...
Gluconobacter oxydans
J. Ferment. Technol.
61
179-184
1983
-
-
-
-
-
3
19
3
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
2
-
1
1
-
1
9
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
3
-
19
9
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
2
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391450
Suzuki
-
Glutamate synthase in rice roo ...
Oryza sativa
Phytochemistry
22
1543-1546
1983
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391451
Schmidt
-
Partial purification and chara ...
Geobacillus stearothermophilus
J. Gen. Microbiol.
128
1713-1718
1982
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
4
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
4
2
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
2
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391452
Yelton
-
Nitrogen metabolism in Rhodosp ...
Rhodospirillum rubrum
J. Gen. Microbiol.
123
335-342
1981
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
1
3
1
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
1
3
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
2
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391441
Schmidt
Affinity purification of gluta ...
Escherichia coli
Anal. Biochem.
104
127-129
1980
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391443
Janssen
The enzymes of the ammonia ass ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Arch. Microbiol.
124
197-203
1980
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391453
Nisbet
-
Glutamate dehydrogenase and gl ...
Kluyveromyces marxianus
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
7
319-321
1980
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391442
Rendina
Glutamate synthase: on the kin ...
Escherichia coli
Biochemistry
17
5388-5393
1978
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391454
Hemmilä
Purification and properties of ...
Bacillus megaterium
Biochem. J.
173
45-52
1978
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
4
-
-
3
-
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
4
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
678013
Hemmilä
Inactivation of glutamate dehy ...
Bacillus megaterium
Biochem. J.
173
53-58
1978
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391455
Adachi
Purification and properties of ...
Thiobacillus thioparus
J. Bacteriol.
129
1173-1182
1977
-
-
-
-
-
3
19
3
-
-
3
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
1
4
1
-
-
3
-
1
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
3
-
19
-
3
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
1
4
1
-
-
3
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391456
Mäntsälä
Properties of apoglutamate syn ...
Escherichia coli
J. Biol. Chem.
251
3300-3305
1976
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
5
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391457
Mäntsälä
Glutamate synthase. Properties ...
Escherichia coli
J. Biol. Chem.
251
3294-3299
1976
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
8
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391438
Miller
Glutamate synthase from Escher ...
Escherichia coli
J. Biol. Chem.
247
7407-7419
1972
-
-
-
-
-
5
38
3
-
1
3
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
2
3
1
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
5
-
38
-
3
-
1
3
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
2
3
1
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
391439
Tempest
Synthesis of glutamate in Aero ...
Klebsiella aerogenes
Biochem. J.
117
405-407
1970
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-