Information on EC 2.7.1.48 - uridine kinase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.7.1.48
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
uridine kinase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ATP + uridine = ADP + UMP
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
phospho group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
pyrimidine ribonucleosides salvage I
-
-
pyrimidine metabolism
-
-
Pyrimidine metabolism
-
-
Drug metabolism - other enzymes
-
-
Metabolic pathways
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
ATP:uridine 5'-phosphotransferase
Cytidine can act as acceptor; GTP and ITP can act as donors.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9026-39-5
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
bifunctional uridine kinase/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase UK/UPRT1; uridine kinase-like protein; ecotype Col-0
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
calf
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
metabolism
uridine-cytidine kinase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the pyrimidine-nucleotide salvage pathway, overview
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + 1-(3-C-ethynyl-beta-D-ribopentofuranosyl)cytosine
ADP + 1-(3-C-ethynyl-beta-D-ribopentofuranosyl)cytosine 5'-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + 1-(3-C-ethynyl-beta-D-ribopentofuranosyl)uridine
ADP + 1-(3-C-ethynyl-beta-D-ribopentofuranosyl)uridine 5'-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + 2-thiocytidine
ADP + 2-thiocytidine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + 3'-deoxy-3'-ethynylcytidine
ADP + 3'-deoxy-3'-ethynylcytidine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant uridine kinase, 20% of activity with uridine
-
?
ATP + 3'-deoxy-3'-ethynyluridine
ADP + 3'-deoxy-3'-ethynyluridine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant uridine kinase, 20% of activity with uridine
-
?
ATP + 3,4,5,6-tetrahydrouridine
ADP + 3,4,5,6-tetrahydrouridine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + 3-deazauridine
ADP + 3-deazauridine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + 3-methyluridine
ADP + 3-methyluridine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
recombinant uridine kinase 2, 18% of activity with uridine
-
?
ATP + 4-thiouridine
ADP + 4-thiouridine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + 5-azacytidine
ADP + 5-azacytidine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + 5-bromouridine
ADP + 5-bromouridine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + 5-fluorocytidine
ADP + 5-fluorocytidine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + 5-fluorouridine
ADP + 5-fluoro-uridine monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + 5-fluorouridine
ADP + 5-fluorouridine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + 5-hydroxyuridine
ADP + 5-hydroxyuridine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + 5-methoxyuridine
ADP + 5-methoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + 5-methylcytidine
ADP + 5-methylcytidine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + 6-azacytidine
ADP + 6-azacytidine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + 6-azauridine
ADP + 6-azauridine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + cyclopentenyl-cytosine
ADP + cyclopentenylcytosine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + cyclopentenylcytosine
ADP + cyclopentenylcytosine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant uridine kinase, 12% of activity with uridine
-
?
ATP + cytidine
ADP + CMP
show the reaction diagram
ATP + N4-acetylcytidine
ADP + N4-acetylcytidine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + N4-aminocytidine
ADP + N4-acetylcytidine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
recombinant uridine kinase 1, 20% of activity with uridine
-
?
ATP + N4-anisoylcytidine
ADP + N4-anisoylcytidine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + N4-benzoylcytidine
ADP + N4-benzoylcytidine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + ribavirin
ADP + ribavirin monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
13% of substrate phosphorylated, within 2 h incubation
-
-
?
ATP + uridine
ADP + UMP
show the reaction diagram
cytidine + ATP
CMP + ADP
show the reaction diagram
dATP + cytidine
dADP + CMP
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant uridine kinase
-
?
dATP + uridine
dADP + UMP
show the reaction diagram
dCTP + cytidine
dCDP + CMP
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant uridine kinase
-
?
dCTP + uridine
dCDP + UMP
show the reaction diagram
dGTP + uridine
dGDP + UMP
show the reaction diagram
dTTP + uridine
dTDP + UMP
show the reaction diagram
dUTP + cytidine
dUDP + CMP
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant uridine kinase
-
?
dUTP + uridine
dUDP + UMP
show the reaction diagram
GTP + 5-fluorocytidine
GDP + 5-fluorocytidine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
40% of activity with uridine
-
?
GTP + 5-fluorouridine
GDP + 5-fluorouridine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
60% of activity with uridine
-
?
GTP + 6-azauridine
GDP 6-azauridine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
31% of activity with uridine
-
?
GTP + cytidine
CMP + GDP
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GTP + N-acetylcytidine
GDP + N-acetylcytidine 5'-monophosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
57% of activity with uridine
-
?
GTP + uridine
UMP + GDP
show the reaction diagram
ITP + uridine
IDP + UMP
show the reaction diagram
uridine + ATP
UMP + ADP
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
-
uridine kinase and uridine phosphorylase are involved in the homeostatic regulation of purine and pyrimidine metabolism in brain. At relatively low UTP and CTP level, uptaken uridine is mainly anabolized to uridine nucleotides. At relatively high UTP and CTP levels, the inhibition of uridine kinase channels uridine towards phosphorolysis, resulting in 5-phosphoribosyl-1-bisphosphate used for purine salvage synthesis
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-
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + 1-(3-C-ethynyl-beta-D-ribopentofuranosyl)cytosine
ADP + 1-(3-C-ethynyl-beta-D-ribopentofuranosyl)cytosine 5'-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
UCK2 enzyme activity required to produce the antitumoral active metabolite
-
-
?
ATP + 1-(3-C-ethynyl-beta-D-ribopentofuranosyl)uridine
ADP + 1-(3-C-ethynyl-beta-D-ribopentofuranosyl)uridine 5'-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
UCK2 enzyme activity required to produce the antitumoral active metabolite
-
-
?
ATP + cytidine
ADP + CMP
show the reaction diagram
ATP + uridine
ADP + UMP
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
-
uridine kinase and uridine phosphorylase are involved in the homeostatic regulation of purine and pyrimidine metabolism in brain. At relatively low UTP and CTP level, uptaken uridine is mainly anabolized to uridine nucleotides. At relatively high UTP and CTP levels, the inhibition of uridine kinase channels uridine towards phosphorolysis, resulting in 5-phosphoribosyl-1-bisphosphate used for purine salvage synthesis
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-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ca2+
can substitute for Mg2+; can substitute for Mg2+
Co2+
-
13 mM, 66% of activity with Mg2+
samarium
-
four binding sites two of which are located in the active sites
Zn2+
can substitute for Mg2+; can substitute for Mg2+
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1-(p-toluenesulfonyl) cytosine
-
44% inhibition at 0.001 mM
5'-Amino-5-deoxyuridine
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-
5'-Azido-5'-deoxycytidine
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5'-Azido-5'-deoxyuridine
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-
5'-Azido-5-deoxyuridine
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-
5'-Deoxyuridine
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5'-Iodo-5'-deoxyuridine
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5'-O-Nitro-5-fluorouridine
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-
5-propyl-2'-deoxyuridine
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6-(4-hexyloxyanilino)uracil
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Ag+
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-
ATP
-
inhibitory when not complexed with Mg2+
cytidine
competitive inhibitor of phosphorylation of uridine
p-chloromercuribenzoate
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0.17 mM, 67% inhibition, 0.69 mM, 82% inhibition, glutathione protects
additional information
-
no substrate inhibition of cytidine and 5-fluorouridine at substrate concentrations higher than 0.5 mM
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-mercaptoethanol
-
1-2.5 mM, 40-50% activation of Pb2+-precipitated uridine kinase
5-bromo-1-(methanesulfonyl) uracil
-
significantly increased activity at 0.001 mM
dithiothreitol
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1-2.5 mM, 40-50% activation of Pb2+-precipitated uridine kinase
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.2
3-deazauridine
-
pH 8.0, 22C
11
5-azacytidine
-
-
0.03 - 0.069
5-fluorouridine
0.34
6-azauridine
-
pH 8.0, 22C
0.349 - 5
ATP
0.023 - 0.42
cytidine
0.37
MgATP2-
-
37C, foetal liver uridine kinase
0.04 - 11.5
uridine
additional information
additional information
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0028 - 3.2
cytidine
0.00118 - 0.0092
uridine
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
12 - 57
cytidine
372
0.72 - 26
uridine
261
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.037
5'-Azido-5'-deoxycytidine
-
-
0.006 - 0.0073
CTP
0.0073
UTP
mutant ttCK (Y93H), pH 8.0, 25C
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.09
5-propyl-2'-deoxyuridine
Entamoeba histolytica
C4M4T4
-
0.054
6-(4-hexyloxyanilino)uracil
Entamoeba histolytica
C4M4T4
-
250
KCl
Entamoeba histolytica
C4M4T4
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.06
-
uridine kinase from adult animal
57.49
-
uridine kinase from foetal animal
80.5
-
-
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.5 - 8
-
-
6.5 - 7
-
-
7.2 - 7.6
-
normal liver and hepatoma cells
7.8
-
broad optimum
8
assay at; assay at
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5 - 9
-
approx. 50% of maximal activity at pH 5.0, approx. 70% of maximal activity at pH 9.0
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
22
-
assay at
25
assay at; assay at
60
-
higher activity than at 10C and 37C
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
SW480 colorectal cells, uridine kinases mRNA expression is higher than in normal tissue
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
36% of liver activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
uridine kinases mRNA expression is higher than in normal tissue
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
hepatoma 3924A cells, 2fold increase in activity during early log phase of prolifration
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
fibrosarcoma cell line highly resistant to 3-ethynyl nucleosides
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
uridine kinases mRNA expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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peripheral blood leukocyte, uridine kinases mRNA expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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A549 lung carcinoma cells, uridine kinases mRNA expression is higher than in normal tissue
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
uridine kinases mRNA expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Raji and Daud Burkitt's lymphoma cells, uridine kinases mRNA expression is higher than in normal tissue
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
gastric carcinoma cell line highly resistant to 3-ethynyl nucleosides
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
160% of liver activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
140% of liver activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
468% of liver activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
90000
-
gel filtration
100000
-
analytical ultracentrifugation
109000
-
sucrose density gradient centrifugation
120000
-
gel filtration
160000
-
gel filtration
additional information
-
120000 Da polymeric and 30000 Da monomeric form, gel filtration, sucrose density gradient centrifugation
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
tetramer
additional information
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
crystals of uridine kinase 2 and in complex with CTP, UTP, cytidine, ATPgammaS and with both cytidine and ATP, the latter complex diffracted to 1.8 A resolution
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in complex with Mg2+, ADP, and CMP by sitting drop vapor diffusion method
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truncated form of UCK2 (1-250) in complex with substrates or feedback inhibitors UTP and CTP
-
purified recombinant enzyme H93Y variant ttCK free or incomplex with CMP, sitting-drop vapor diffusion method, mixing of 500 nl of 25 mg/ml protein, with 1 mM CMP, 1 mM ADP, and 1 mM MgCl2 in case of the enzyme complex, with 500 nl well solution containing 67% 40% v/v isopropanol, 15% w/v PEG 8000, and 0.1 M imidazole, pH 6.5, and 33% distilled water for the free enzyme, and containing 50% w/v PEG 200, and 0.1 M Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, for the enzyme complex, 20C, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 2.25 A resolution, molecular replacement
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
4 - 7.5
-
complete loss of activity below pH 4.0
641652
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
45
-
foetal liver uridine kinase, 50% loss of activity after 10 min, adult liver uridine kinase, no loss of activity after 10 min
50
-
3% loss of activity after 10 min
70
enzyme H93Y variant ttCK, stable up to at pH 7.0
100
-
dry uridine kinase precipitated with Pb2+, 30% loss of activity after 1 h, dry uridine kinase precipitated with Zn2+, 25% loss of activity after 1 h
additional information
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ATP protects the enzyme completely for 30 min at 37C in crude extract
-
complete loss of activity after storage at -18C for 24 h in the presence of 0.1 mM dithiothreitol
-
enzyme is unstable in crude extracts, especially in the presence of Mg2+
-
pure enzyme is very sensitive to freezing
-
some loss of activity after repeated freezing and thawing
-
stability of insoluble metal ion precipitated form of the enzyme
-
to achieve stability phosphate buffers are used throughout purification and for storage of enzyme fractions
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-15C, 2 to 3 months, occasional thawing, no loss of activity
-
-18C, phosphate buffer, pH 7.4-8.2, several months, no loss of activity
-
-20C, 50% glycerol, at least 6 months, no loss of activity
-
-20C, 50% glycerol, several months, no loss of activity
-
-20C, several weeks, no loss of activity
-
0C, 8 weeks, 20% loss of activity
-
4C, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.8, 6 months, no loss of activity
-
4C, at least 1 month, no loss of activity
-
4C, sterile conditions, at least 2 years, no loss of activity enzyme
-
5C, Pb2+ or Zn2+-precipitated uridine kinase, 6 months, 10-15% loss of activity
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ammonium sulfate, Pb2+-precipitation
-
DE-52, ammonium sulfate, ATP-agarose column
-
DEAE-cellulose, ammonium sulfate, hydroxyapatite
-
immobilized metal ion adsorption chromatography (Ni2+)
partial purification
-
protamine sulfate, CM-cellulose, ammonium sulfate, DEAE-cellulose, zone electrophoresis
-
recombinant enzyme using glutathione-S-transferase tag
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recombinant His-tagged uridine kinase, Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid-Sepharose
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recombinant protein using His-tag
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recombinant ttCK from Escherichia coli strain Rosetta(DE3) by heat treatment at 60C for 20 min, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and gel filtration
streptomycin, ammonium sulfate, calcium phosphate, DEAE-cellulose
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streptomycin, ammonium sulfate, calcium phosphate, Sephadex G-200
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streptomycin, ammonium sulfate, DEAE-cellulose
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ultracentrifugation, DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on 5'amino-5'-deoxyuridine
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
; expressed in Escherichia coli strain JM109
enzyme H93Y variant ttCK, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, overexpression in Escherichia coli strain Rosetta(DE3)
expressed as His-tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli BL21
-
expressed with a glutathione-S-transferase tag
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expression of UCK1 and 2 in Escherichia coli; expression of UCK1 and 2 in Escherichia coli
His-tag, expressed in Escherichia coli
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
R162W
-
no activity
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
biotechnology
-
overexpression of gene udk encoding uridine/cytidine kinase interferes with T7 bacteriophage growth. This inhibition can be overcome by inhibition of host RNA polymerase by overexpression of gene 2 or by treatment with rifampicin. General model for the requirement of host RNA polymerase inhibition
medicine
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